Abstract

The paper describes how contact was made with a number of tritanopes through an article published in Picture Post, an illustrated weekly English journal. Seventeen cases of tritanopia were tested and confirmed at the Imperial College, London, and of these, seven made detailed observations on the author’s colorimeter. The measurements included the relative luminous efficiency of monochromatic radiation through the spectrum (the luminosity curve), the dichromatic spectral coefficient curves, the spectral mixture curves, the tritanopic confusion loci in the C.I.E. chromaticity chart, and the wavelength discrimination curve. The results support the theory that tritanopia is due to the absence of blue receptors, although the location on the chromaticity chart of the fundamental stimulus associated with the blue process has not yet been determined with precision. From the readership statistics of Picture Post and from an analysis of the correspondence received as a result of the article, it is estimated that the incidence of tritanopia lies somewhere between 1 person in 13,000 and 1 in 65,000, and that the ratio of men to women tritanopes is of the order of 1.6 to 1. The transmission of the defect appears to differ from that found for protanopia and deuteranopia.

I should like to express my very warm appreciation of the honor which the Optical Society of America has conferred on me in inviting me to give the 1952 Adolph Lomb Memorial Lecture. The work described below has itself involved a degree of Anglo-American cooperation which has given me great pleasure, and the invitation to give this lecture is a further indication of the cordial relationship between optics research in our two countries. I am glad, too, to be linked in this way with Adolph Lomb, if for no other reason than the important part which I understand Mr. Lomb played in securing the English translation of Helmholtz’s Physiological Optics. The subject of this lecture stems very directly from some of the problems discussed in that great treatise.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Report on Defective Color Vision in Industry (Physical Society, London, England, 1946).
  3. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, England, 1946; C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  4. F. G. H. Pitt, , (1935).
  5. Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 833 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1923).
  7. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature,  156, 119 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (B) 132, 101 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Konig, Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 1903).

1950 (1)

1945 (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature,  156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

1923 (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1923).

Farnsworth,

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1923).

Judd,

Judd, D. B.

Konig, A.

A. Konig, Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 1903).

Pitt, F. G. H.

F. G. H. Pitt, , (1935).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Plaza,

Tyndall, E. P. T.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1923).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature,  156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature,  156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, England, 1946; C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nature (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature,  156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (B) (1)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 475 (1923).

Other (4)

A. Konig, Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 1903).

Report on Defective Color Vision in Industry (Physical Society, London, England, 1946).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, England, 1946; C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

F. G. H. Pitt, , (1935).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LogVλ curve for a typical tritanope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LogVλ curves for seven tritanopes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average logVλ curve for seven tritanopes (broken line), shown in comparison with author’s curve (solid line) recorded under identical conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dichromatic coefficient curves for the spectrum for a typical tritanope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average dichromatic coefficient curves for the spectrum for seven tritanopes.

Figs. 6–9
Figs. 6–9

Spectral mixture curves for seven tritanopes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average spectral mixture curves for seven tritanopes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

C.I.E. chromaticity chart showing the average confusion loci for five tritanopes.

Figs. 12 and 13
Figs. 12 and 13

Wavelength discrimination curves for four tritanopes.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

LogVλ curve for a non-typical color defective observer. (Discrimination curve in Fig. 15.)

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Wavelength discrimination curve for non-typical color defective observer. (Vλ curve in Fig. 14.)

Tables (11)

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Table I. A Tritanope characteristics—observer A.

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Table I. B Tritanope characteristics—observer B.

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Table I. C Tritanope characteristics—observer C.

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Table I. D Tritanope characteristics—observer D.

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Table I. E Tritanope characteristics—observer E.

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Table I. F Tritanope characteristics—observer F.

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Table I. G Tritanope characteristics—observer G.

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Table II Average tritanope.

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Table IV Tritanope measurements on Munsell samples.

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Table V Special case—near monochromat.