Abstract

A mounting for two photomultiplier tubes for the Baird spectrograph is described. Leeds and Northrup experimental preamplifiers and ratio recorder are used in conjunction with the photomultipliers. The 60-cycle ac signal system is described. The equipment has been used in three analytical problems: the determination of Li in the flame, uranium isotopic determinations using the hollow cathode and the spark, and the copper spark determination of scandium. The precision of the uranium isotopic determination is discussed.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Dieke, , 1945.
  2. G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 471 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. M. Crosswhite, Spectrochim. Acta 4, 122 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Saunderson, Caldecourt, and Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 696 (1945).
  6. A. Hans, Compt. rend. recherches, Bruxelles, No.  1, 85 (November, 1949).
  7. Fred, Nachtrieb, and Tomkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 294 (1947).
  8. G. H. Dieke, private communication.
  9. Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Stukenbroeker, Adams, and Burkhart, (September22, 1947).
  11. J. Rand McNally, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 271 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Z. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).
  14. P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 65, 547 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 69, 298 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 120.

1950 (2)

Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Crosswhite, Spectrochim. Acta 4, 122 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1949 (3)

J. Rand McNally, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 271 (1949).
[CrossRef]

A. Hans, Compt. rend. recherches, Bruxelles, No.  1, 85 (November, 1949).

Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).

1947 (1)

Fred, Nachtrieb, and Tomkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 294 (1947).

1945 (2)

Saunderson, Caldecourt, and Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 696 (1945).

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 471 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

1935 (1)

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Z. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 69, 298 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 65, 547 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Adams,

Stukenbroeker, Adams, and Burkhart, (September22, 1947).

Beckman,

Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Burkhart,

Stukenbroeker, Adams, and Burkhart, (September22, 1947).

Caldecourt,

Saunderson, Caldecourt, and Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 696 (1945).

Crosswhite, H. M.

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 471 (1945).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Dieke, , 1945.

G. H. Dieke, private communication.

Dietert, H. W.

Fred,

Fred, Nachtrieb, and Tomkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 294 (1947).

Gilbert,

Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Gollnow, H.

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Z. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Hans, A.

A. Hans, Compt. rend. recherches, Bruxelles, No.  1, 85 (November, 1949).

Harrison,

Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 120.

Hasler, M. F.

Hawes,

Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Loofbourow,

Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 120.

Lord,

Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 120.

McNally,

Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).

Nachtrieb,

Fred, Nachtrieb, and Tomkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 294 (1947).

Peterson,

Saunderson, Caldecourt, and Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 696 (1945).

Rand McNally, J.

Saunderson,

Saunderson, Caldecourt, and Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 696 (1945).

Schüler, H.

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Z. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Smith,

Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).

Stukenbroeker,

Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).

Stukenbroeker, Adams, and Burkhart, (September22, 1947).

Tomkins,

Fred, Nachtrieb, and Tomkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 294 (1947).

van Cittert, P. H.

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 69, 298 (1931).
[CrossRef]

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 65, 547 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Gilbert, Hawes, and Beckman, Anal. Chem. 22, 772 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Compt. rend. recherches, Bruxelles (1)

A. Hans, Compt. rend. recherches, Bruxelles, No.  1, 85 (November, 1949).

Document Y-433 (1)

Smith, Stukenbroeker, and McNally, Document Y-433 (June10, 1949).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

H. M. Crosswhite, Spectrochim. Acta 4, 122 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Z. Physik (3)

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Z. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[CrossRef]

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 65, 547 (1930).
[CrossRef]

P. H. van Cittert, Z. Physik 69, 298 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 120.

G. H. Dieke, , 1945.

G. H. Dieke, private communication.

Stukenbroeker, Adams, and Burkhart, (September22, 1947).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photomultiplier mounting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal patterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analytical curve for the determination of lithium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations in the lithium intensity and the lithium to cobalt ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of sodium on the lithium intensity and the lithium to cobalt ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recorder traces of the uranium isotopic pair at 4244.37A.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analytical curve for the determination of scandium.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Photomultiplier operating conditions for determination of lithium.

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Table II Spectrographic and chemical determinations of lithium (mg/ml).

Tables Icon

Table III Reproducibility of the spectrographic results.

Tables Icon

Table IV Uranium isotopic determination. Comparison of optical spectrographic results using hollow cathode excitation with mass spectrographic results.

Tables Icon

Table V Reproducibility of uranium isotopic determinations using hollow cathode excitation.

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Table VI Uranium isotopic determinations. Comparison of optical spectrographic results using spark excitation with mass spectrographic results.

Tables Icon

Table VII Uranium isotopic determination intensity data for 10 consecutive traces.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I U 235 / ( I U 235 + I U 238 ) × 100 = percent U 235 .
P F 2 = P I 1 2 ( F / I 1 ) 2 + P I 2 2 ( F / I 2 ) 2 ,
F 238 = I 238 / ( I 238 + I 235 ) ,
F 235 = I 235 / ( I 238 + I 235 ) .
F 235 I 235 = I 238 ( I 238 + I 235 ) 2 = F 238 I 235 + I 238 F 235 I 238 = - I 235 ( I 235 + I 238 ) 2 = - F 235 I 235 + I 238 F 238 I 235 = - I 238 ( I 235 + I 238 ) 2 = - F 238 I 235 + I 238 F 238 I 238 = I 235 ( I 235 + I 238 ) 2 = F 235 I 235 + I 238 .
I 235 = 5 ( 0.612 ) ± 5 [ 2 E 2 ] 1 2 ,
I 238 = 0.230 ± [ 2 E 2 ] 1 2 .
P F 238 2 = P I 235 2 ( F 238 I 235 ) 2 + P I 238 2 ( F 238 I 238 ) 2 .
P F 238 2 = E 2 / ( 3.29 ) 2 [ 50 × 0.00489 + 2 × 0.8650 ] P 0 F 238 = 0.427 E / n 1 2 P 0 F 238 = 0.135 E ,
P 0 F 238 = 0.0001 or 0.01 percent absolute .