Abstract

A new photographic phenomenon, a low intensity desensitization effect (“L.I.D. effect”) is described. With certain solarizable emulsions, it was found that the latent image formed by a short, high intensity exposure was destroyed by a subsequent long, low intensity exposure. If the low intensity exposure was given first, it desensitized the emulsion. Thus, in both cases the density resulting from the two exposures was lower than the density obtained by the short exposure alone. Sensitometric data on this desensitization effect are presented. Previous work relating to it is briefly reviewed, and its relation to other double-exposure effects is outlined. Substitution of x-ray exposures for the high intensity exposures show that both act in the same manner under the experimental conditions used. Practical applications of the new effect as a reversal process and for color correction in reproducing colored originals are suggested.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Webb and C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 445 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 418 (1946).
  3. S. E. Sheppard, Chem. Revs. 4, 319 (1927).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Pfister, Camera (Luzern) 27, 54 (1948).
  5. C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Company, New York, 1942), pp. 277–289.
  6. See reference 5, pp. 254–257.
  7. See reference 5, p. 55.
  8. H. Arens and J. Eggert, Z. wiss. Phot. 30, 121 (1931).
  9. H. Arens, Z. wiss. Phot. 32, 233 (1934); Z. wiss. Phot. 34, 125 (1935).
  10. H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 424 (1946).

1948 (1)

K. Pfister, Camera (Luzern) 27, 54 (1948).

1946 (2)

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 418 (1946).

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 424 (1946).

1940 (1)

1934 (1)

H. Arens, Z. wiss. Phot. 32, 233 (1934); Z. wiss. Phot. 34, 125 (1935).

1931 (1)

H. Arens and J. Eggert, Z. wiss. Phot. 30, 121 (1931).

1927 (1)

S. E. Sheppard, Chem. Revs. 4, 319 (1927).
[Crossref]

Arens, H.

H. Arens, Z. wiss. Phot. 32, 233 (1934); Z. wiss. Phot. 34, 125 (1935).

H. Arens and J. Eggert, Z. wiss. Phot. 30, 121 (1931).

Eggert, J.

H. Arens and J. Eggert, Z. wiss. Phot. 30, 121 (1931).

Evans, C. H.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Company, New York, 1942), pp. 277–289.

Pfister, K.

K. Pfister, Camera (Luzern) 27, 54 (1948).

Sauvenier, H.

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 418 (1946).

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 424 (1946).

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard, Chem. Revs. 4, 319 (1927).
[Crossref]

Webb, J. H.

Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège (2)

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 418 (1946).

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 15, 424 (1946).

Camera (Luzern) (1)

K. Pfister, Camera (Luzern) 27, 54 (1948).

Chem. Revs. (1)

S. E. Sheppard, Chem. Revs. 4, 319 (1927).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Z. wiss. Phot. (2)

H. Arens and J. Eggert, Z. wiss. Phot. 30, 121 (1931).

H. Arens, Z. wiss. Phot. 32, 233 (1934); Z. wiss. Phot. 34, 125 (1935).

Other (3)

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Company, New York, 1942), pp. 277–289.

See reference 5, pp. 254–257.

See reference 5, p. 55.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reciprocity-failure curves for Type 1363 emulsion developed in Kodalith Developer and in Kodak D-16.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of duration of exposure on solarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reciprocity curves suggested by Webb and Evans data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of duration of exposure on the repeat coating of emulsion, used by Webb and Evans.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Short exposure first, followed by long exposure. Crossed 2 step-tablet exposure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reversal curves plotted from crossed step-tablet exposure reproduced in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Long exposure first, followed by short exposure. Crossed 2 step-tablet exposure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reversal curves plotted from crossed step-tablet exposure reproduced in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation in long-exposure speed vs amount of fogging exposure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reversal curves which would be obtained from ordinary solarization. Compare with L.I.D. effect reversals in Figs. 6 and 8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Solarization and L.I.D. properties of various emulsions and developers.