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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Original notes of Leonardo da Vinci on lens grinding devices. Leonardo da Vinci recorded all of his technical notes in mirror writing (in reverse) so as to preserve his secrets for the more astutè readers or those with mirrors. He did his backward writing with his left hand and his normal writing with his right hand.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A model of a hand-operated machine for grinding a concave lens for a telescope or other instrument. By turning the handle a large circular wheel, rotated by a system of gears, ground the lens placed beneath it. This model was constructed by Roberto A. Guatelli and was one of the many models at the Exhibition of Leonardo’s Scientific Achievements sponsored by the International Business Machine Corporation, Washington, 1951.