Abstract

A description is given of an apparatus which has been constructed for the purpose of investigating, by means of the binocular matching technique, the changes in color perception which arise when the state of adaptation of the eye is altered.

The changes in color perception, consequent upon changes in the intensity of the adapting light in seven steps from zero to 100 candles per square foot, have been investigated for two observers. The adapting field size was 60°; the test-field size was 20°.

There was found a gradual decrease in the saturation of colors as the adapting light intensity was lowered. At low levels, the saturation increased with increasing test-color intensity; but at high levels, increasing test-color intensity caused most colors to become bluer. The sensation corresponding to dim light seen by the dark-adapted eye was found to be pale blue, and not colorless.

A final section considers the problem of how the activity of a fourth “white” receptor mechanism might be reconciled with trichromatic matching, and in particular with the constancy of monocular color matches with changes in adaptation.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Kruithof and P. J. Bouma, Physica 9, 957 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. S. J. White and T. Vickerstaff, J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 61, 222 (1945).
  3. G. T. Winch and B. M. Young, Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) 18, No. 2 (April, 1951).
  4. R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. G. Hunt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Aldington, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 6 (1945).
  7. J. W. Strange, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 111 (1950).
  8. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, 1947).
  9. H. Hartridge, Nature 160, 538 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 148.
  11. H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 793 (1948).
    [CrossRef]

1951 (1)

G. T. Winch and B. M. Young, Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) 18, No. 2 (April, 1951).

1950 (2)

R. W. G. Hunt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Strange, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 111 (1950).

1949 (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 793 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

H. Hartridge, Nature 160, 538 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1945 (2)

J. N. Aldington, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 6 (1945).

G. S. J. White and T. Vickerstaff, J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 61, 222 (1945).

1942 (1)

A. A. Kruithof and P. J. Bouma, Physica 9, 957 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Aldington, J. N.

J. N. Aldington, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 6 (1945).

Bouma, P. J.

A. A. Kruithof and P. J. Bouma, Physica 9, 957 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 793 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, 1947).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Nature 160, 538 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
[CrossRef]

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Kruithof, A. A.

A. A. Kruithof and P. J. Bouma, Physica 9, 957 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Strange, J. W.

J. W. Strange, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 111 (1950).

Vickerstaff, T.

G. S. J. White and T. Vickerstaff, J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 61, 222 (1945).

White, G. S. J.

G. S. J. White and T. Vickerstaff, J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 61, 222 (1945).

Winch, G. T.

G. T. Winch and B. M. Young, Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) 18, No. 2 (April, 1951).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 148.

Young, B. M.

G. T. Winch and B. M. Young, Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) 18, No. 2 (April, 1951).

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 793 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) (1)

G. T. Winch and B. M. Young, Gen. Elec. Co. J. (London) 18, No. 2 (April, 1951).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Soc. Dyers Colourists (1)

G. S. J. White and T. Vickerstaff, J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 61, 222 (1945).

Nature (1)

H. Hartridge, Nature 160, 538 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Physica (1)

A. A. Kruithof and P. J. Bouma, Physica 9, 957 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) (2)

J. N. Aldington, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 6 (1945).

J. W. Strange, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 111 (1950).

Other (2)

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, 1947).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 148.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the binocular color-matching instrument used. Adapting fields emanate from lamps L3, and are reflected into binoculars B, by means of semireflecting prism cubes C. The test-color beam emanates from lamps L1 and L2, and semireflecting mirror M1, and passes through left-hand prism cube into left eyepiece of B. The red, green, and blue matching beam emanates from Donaldson Colorimeter and passes through right-hand prism cube into right eyepiece of B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fields of view used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral-transmittance curves of the eight-colored filters used to obtain the test colors. In each case, the color was desaturated by an admixture of Illuminant B light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral-transmittance curves of neutral filters used to obtain left-eye adaptation levels. No filter was used for level A; for level Z, an opaque filter was used in the adapting beam, while in the test-color beam the filter used was the same as that for level F.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Binocular matches obtained by the author on the eight different colors when the left eye was adapted in turn to the seven different intensity levels, while the right eye was kept adapted to level C. All the results shown are for reflectance 5 (test-color intensity equal to adapting intensity). In this diagram, and in those of Figs. 613 inclusive, only the dots and arrowheads have experimental significance. Lines joining them are for identification purposes only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The same as Fig. 5, but for observer PMY.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Binocular matches when the left eye was adapted to level A (100 candles/sq ft). Numbers indicate the lowest, and arrowheads the highest, reflectances that could be matched: (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Binocular matches when left eye was adapted to level B (6 candles/sq ft): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results; (c) observer AM’s results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Binocular matches when the left eye was adapted to level C (0.75 candle/sq ft): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Binocular matches when left eye was adapted to level D (0.25 candle/sq ft): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Binocular matches when left eye was adapted to level E (0.03 candle/sq ft): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Binocular matches when left eye was adapted to level F (0.007 candle/sq ft): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Binocular matches when left eye was adapted to level Z (zero intensity): (a) the author’s results; (b) observer PMY’s results.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Description of adaptation levels used.a

Tables Icon

Table II Luminance levels (“reflectances”) of test colors relative to adapting luminance.a

Equations (4)

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1.0 · W = 0.333 R + 0.333 G + 0.333 B .
r 1 + 1 4 w 1 = r 2 + 1 4 w 2 g 1 + 1 4 w 1 = g 2 + 1 4 w 2 b 1 + 1 2 w 1 = b 2 + 1 2 w 2 ,
l r 1 + 1 4 p w 1 = l r 2 + 1 4 p w 2 m g 1 + 1 4 p w 1 = m g 2 + 1 4 p w 2 n b 1 + 1 2 p w 1 = n b 2 + 1 2 p w 2 .
w 1 = a r 1 + b g 1 + c b 1 w 2 = a r 2 + b g 2 + c b 2 ,