Abstract

The experimental procedure and the underlying theory of several methods of calibration are given. The best method has been found to be one in which observation is made on a channeled spectrum, where the channeling is the result of multiple reflexions in a plane parallel plate. The wavelength for which the plate is a λ/4 plate can be found easily to within 10A. Photographs are given to illustrate the channeled spectrum method, and the results of a detailed analysis of the accuracy of this method are shown graphically. A method to get higher precision is indicated. The effect of multiple reflexions on the phase difference of the plate to be calibrated is discussed. Some theoretical and practical details of construction, with particular reference to mica plates, are mentioned.

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  1. R. D. Mindlin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 288 (1937).
  2. H. de Sénarmont, Ann. chim. et phys. 73, 337 (1840); G. Friedel, Bull. Soc. Min. (France) 16, 19 (1893); Compt. rend. 116, 272 (1893); M. Chauvin, Ann. Toulouse 3J, 28 (1889); J. phys. 9, 21 (1890); A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 11, 158, 290 (1907); 19, 153 (1910); 20, 275 (1910), and J. phys. 1, 8 (1911); A. Cotton, Ann. chim. et phys. 22, 425 (1911); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 48, 202 (1912); 54, 1013 (1919); Nuovo cimento 5, 179, 352 (1913); 18, 112 (1919), and Z. Physik. 8, 63 (1922).; L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 61 (1915); S. Procopiu, Ann. phys. 1, 223 (1924); C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925); R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934); Rev. optique, (Théor. Instr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); L. R. Ingersoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 411 (1937); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 58, 301 (1938); 61, 298 (1941), and Physik. Z. 42, 319 (1941); M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941); A. Vagiek, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 167 (1940).
  3. H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 35 (1948).
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  6. R. Dongier, Compt. rend. 122, 308 (1896); Ann. chim. et phys. 14, 475 (1898); M. Berek, Ann. Physik 58, 165 (1919); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 718 (1934), and Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Physik 116, 47 (1940); J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 222, 650 (1946); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 25, 36, 267 (1946).
  7. F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Physik. Z. 42, 320 (1941).
  8. G. Bruhat and L. Weil, Compt. rend. 201, 719 (1935); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 15, 41, 94 (1936).
  9. D. B. Brace, Phil. Mag. 48, 345 (1899); E. J. Rendtorff, Phil. Mag. 1, 539 (1901); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 54, 1013 (1919); C. Gaudefroy, Compt. rend. 189, 1289 (1929); M. G. Destriau and J. Prouteau, J. phys. et radium 10, 53 (1949).
  10. S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam interferometry of surfaces and films (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1948), p. 60.
  11. C. Bergholm, Ann. Physik 44, 1057 (1914).
  12. C. Benedicks, Physik. Z. 32, 561 (1931).
  13. J. Strong, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 243 (1935); Modern Physical Laboratory Practice (Blackie and Son, Ltd., London, 1938), p. 388.
  14. F. E. Wright, Am. J. Sci. 237, 736 (1939).
  15. J. Rabinovitch, Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 18, 81 (1939).
  16. L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 204 (1915); Compt. rend. 154, 271 (1912).
  17. J. Rabinovitch, J. phys. et radium 3, 29 (1932); Rev. Optique (Th6or. Instrumr.) 15, 63 (1936).
  18. A. Cotton and P. Manigault, Compt. rend. 219, 597 (1944).
  19. L. Tronstad, J. Sci. Instr. 11, 146 (1934).
  20. See, for example A. Johannsen, Manual of Petrographic Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1918), p. 362.
  21. L. B. Tuckerman, University of Nebraska Studies 9, 157 (1909).
  22. O. Schbönrock, Handbuch der Physik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928) 19, p. 918.
  23. F. E. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 534 (1930).
  24. A. Q. Tool, Phys. Rev. 31, 1 (1910).
  25. D. B. Brace, Phys. Rev. 18, 70 (1904); 19, 218 (1904).
  26. M. Richartz and H.-Y. Hsü, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 136 (1949).
  27. S. Nakamura, Zbl. Min. Gcol. Paläolit. 267 (1905).
  28. O. Schönrock, Handbuchl der Plhysik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928), 19, p. 750.
  29. N. Wedeneewa, Ann. Phys. 72, 138 (1923).
  30. G. Szivessy and W. Herzog, Z. Instrumentenk. 57, 305 (1937); Physik. Z. 38, 129 (1937).
  31. M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941).
  32. H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 51 (1948).
  33. A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 277 (1910). See also remarks by F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 61, 305 (1941).
  34. H. G. Jerrard, J. Sci. Instr. 28, 10 (1951).
  35. H. Poincaré, "Théorie mathématique de la lumière," (Mathemathical theory of light) (in French), Paris 1892, vol. II, p. 275.
  36. C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925).
  37. J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 186, 1432 (1928); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr,) 10, 131 (1931).
  38. R. M. Emberson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 63 (1936).

Benedicks, C.

C. Benedicks, Physik. Z. 32, 561 (1931).

Bergholm, C.

C. Bergholm, Ann. Physik 44, 1057 (1914).

Brace, D. B.

D. B. Brace, Phil. Mag. 48, 345 (1899); E. J. Rendtorff, Phil. Mag. 1, 539 (1901); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 54, 1013 (1919); C. Gaudefroy, Compt. rend. 189, 1289 (1929); M. G. Destriau and J. Prouteau, J. phys. et radium 10, 53 (1949).

D. B. Brace, Phys. Rev. 18, 70 (1904); 19, 218 (1904).

Bruhat, G.

G. Bruhat and L. Weil, Compt. rend. 201, 719 (1935); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 15, 41, 94 (1936).

Chaumont, L.

L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 204 (1915); Compt. rend. 154, 271 (1912).

Cotton, A.

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 277 (1910). See also remarks by F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 61, 305 (1941).

A. Cotton and P. Manigault, Compt. rend. 219, 597 (1944).

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 276 (1910); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934).

Cullagh, J. Mac

J. Mac Cullagh, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 1, 158 (1841); 2, 376 (1844); Collected Works, pp. 138, 230 (Dublin and London, 1880); G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 2, 420 (1851); Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 1, 111 (1851); Rept. British Assn. Notes and Abstract 14, (1841); Mathematical and Physical Papers, Vol. 3, 197 (Cambridge, 1901); J. Walker, Phil. Mag. 3, 541 (1902); M. Berek and H. Marx, Optik 3, 444 (1948).

de Sénarmont, H.

H. de Sénarmont, Ann. chim. et phys. 73, 337 (1840); G. Friedel, Bull. Soc. Min. (France) 16, 19 (1893); Compt. rend. 116, 272 (1893); M. Chauvin, Ann. Toulouse 3J, 28 (1889); J. phys. 9, 21 (1890); A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 11, 158, 290 (1907); 19, 153 (1910); 20, 275 (1910), and J. phys. 1, 8 (1911); A. Cotton, Ann. chim. et phys. 22, 425 (1911); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 48, 202 (1912); 54, 1013 (1919); Nuovo cimento 5, 179, 352 (1913); 18, 112 (1919), and Z. Physik. 8, 63 (1922).; L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 61 (1915); S. Procopiu, Ann. phys. 1, 223 (1924); C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925); R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934); Rev. optique, (Théor. Instr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); L. R. Ingersoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 411 (1937); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 58, 301 (1938); 61, 298 (1941), and Physik. Z. 42, 319 (1941); M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941); A. Vagiek, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 167 (1940).

Dongier, R.

R. Dongier, Compt. rend. 122, 308 (1896); Ann. chim. et phys. 14, 475 (1898); M. Berek, Ann. Physik 58, 165 (1919); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 718 (1934), and Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Physik 116, 47 (1940); J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 222, 650 (1946); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 25, 36, 267 (1946).

Emberson, R. M.

R. M. Emberson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 63 (1936).

Gabler, F.

F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Physik. Z. 42, 320 (1941).

Herzog, W.

G. Szivessy and W. Herzog, Z. Instrumentenk. 57, 305 (1937); Physik. Z. 38, 129 (1937).

Hsü, H.-Y.

M. Richartz and H.-Y. Hsü, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 136 (1949).

Jerrard, H. G.

H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 51 (1948).

H. G. Jerrard, J. Sci. Instr. 28, 10 (1951).

H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 35 (1948).

Johannsen, A.

See, for example A. Johannsen, Manual of Petrographic Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1918), p. 362.

Manigault, P.

A. Cotton and P. Manigault, Compt. rend. 219, 597 (1944).

Mindlin, R. D.

R. D. Mindlin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 288 (1937).

Mouton, H.

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 277 (1910). See also remarks by F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 61, 305 (1941).

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 276 (1910); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934).

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Zbl. Min. Gcol. Paläolit. 267 (1905).

Poincaré, H.

H. Poincaré, "Théorie mathématique de la lumière," (Mathemathical theory of light) (in French), Paris 1892, vol. II, p. 275.

Rabinovitch, J.

J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 186, 1432 (1928); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr,) 10, 131 (1931).

J. Rabinovitch, J. phys. et radium 3, 29 (1932); Rev. Optique (Th6or. Instrumr.) 15, 63 (1936).

J. Rabinovitch, Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 18, 81 (1939).

Richartz, M.

M. Richartz and H.-Y. Hsü, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 136 (1949).

M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941).

Schbönrock, O.

O. Schbönrock, Handbuch der Physik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928) 19, p. 918.

Schönrock, O.

O. Schönrock, Handbuchl der Plhysik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928), 19, p. 750.

Skinner, C. A.

C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925).

Sokob, P.

F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Physik. Z. 42, 320 (1941).

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 243 (1935); Modern Physical Laboratory Practice (Blackie and Son, Ltd., London, 1938), p. 388.

Szivessy, G.

G. Szivessy and W. Herzog, Z. Instrumentenk. 57, 305 (1937); Physik. Z. 38, 129 (1937).

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam interferometry of surfaces and films (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1948), p. 60.

Tool, A. Q.

A. Q. Tool, Phys. Rev. 31, 1 (1910).

Tronstad, L.

L. Tronstad, J. Sci. Instr. 11, 146 (1934).

Tuckerman, L. B.

L. B. Tuckerman, University of Nebraska Studies 9, 157 (1909).

Wedeneewa, N.

N. Wedeneewa, Ann. Phys. 72, 138 (1923).

Weil, L.

G. Bruhat and L. Weil, Compt. rend. 201, 719 (1935); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 15, 41, 94 (1936).

Wright, F. E.

F. E. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 534 (1930).

F. E. Wright, Am. J. Sci. 237, 736 (1939).

Other (38)

R. D. Mindlin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 288 (1937).

H. de Sénarmont, Ann. chim. et phys. 73, 337 (1840); G. Friedel, Bull. Soc. Min. (France) 16, 19 (1893); Compt. rend. 116, 272 (1893); M. Chauvin, Ann. Toulouse 3J, 28 (1889); J. phys. 9, 21 (1890); A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 11, 158, 290 (1907); 19, 153 (1910); 20, 275 (1910), and J. phys. 1, 8 (1911); A. Cotton, Ann. chim. et phys. 22, 425 (1911); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 48, 202 (1912); 54, 1013 (1919); Nuovo cimento 5, 179, 352 (1913); 18, 112 (1919), and Z. Physik. 8, 63 (1922).; L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 61 (1915); S. Procopiu, Ann. phys. 1, 223 (1924); C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925); R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934); Rev. optique, (Théor. Instr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); L. R. Ingersoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 411 (1937); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 58, 301 (1938); 61, 298 (1941), and Physik. Z. 42, 319 (1941); M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941); A. Vagiek, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 167 (1940).

H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 35 (1948).

J. Mac Cullagh, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 1, 158 (1841); 2, 376 (1844); Collected Works, pp. 138, 230 (Dublin and London, 1880); G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 2, 420 (1851); Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 1, 111 (1851); Rept. British Assn. Notes and Abstract 14, (1841); Mathematical and Physical Papers, Vol. 3, 197 (Cambridge, 1901); J. Walker, Phil. Mag. 3, 541 (1902); M. Berek and H. Marx, Optik 3, 444 (1948).

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 276 (1910); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 852 (1934).

R. Dongier, Compt. rend. 122, 308 (1896); Ann. chim. et phys. 14, 475 (1898); M. Berek, Ann. Physik 58, 165 (1919); G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, Compt. rend. 199, 718 (1934), and Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 14, 217, 354 (1935); F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Physik 116, 47 (1940); J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 222, 650 (1946); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 25, 36, 267 (1946).

F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Physik. Z. 42, 320 (1941).

G. Bruhat and L. Weil, Compt. rend. 201, 719 (1935); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 15, 41, 94 (1936).

D. B. Brace, Phil. Mag. 48, 345 (1899); E. J. Rendtorff, Phil. Mag. 1, 539 (1901); E. Perucca, Atti. Accad. Sci. (Torino) 54, 1013 (1919); C. Gaudefroy, Compt. rend. 189, 1289 (1929); M. G. Destriau and J. Prouteau, J. phys. et radium 10, 53 (1949).

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam interferometry of surfaces and films (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1948), p. 60.

C. Bergholm, Ann. Physik 44, 1057 (1914).

C. Benedicks, Physik. Z. 32, 561 (1931).

J. Strong, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 243 (1935); Modern Physical Laboratory Practice (Blackie and Son, Ltd., London, 1938), p. 388.

F. E. Wright, Am. J. Sci. 237, 736 (1939).

J. Rabinovitch, Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr.) 18, 81 (1939).

L. Chaumont, Ann. phys. 4, 204 (1915); Compt. rend. 154, 271 (1912).

J. Rabinovitch, J. phys. et radium 3, 29 (1932); Rev. Optique (Th6or. Instrumr.) 15, 63 (1936).

A. Cotton and P. Manigault, Compt. rend. 219, 597 (1944).

L. Tronstad, J. Sci. Instr. 11, 146 (1934).

See, for example A. Johannsen, Manual of Petrographic Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1918), p. 362.

L. B. Tuckerman, University of Nebraska Studies 9, 157 (1909).

O. Schbönrock, Handbuch der Physik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928) 19, p. 918.

F. E. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 534 (1930).

A. Q. Tool, Phys. Rev. 31, 1 (1910).

D. B. Brace, Phys. Rev. 18, 70 (1904); 19, 218 (1904).

M. Richartz and H.-Y. Hsü, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 136 (1949).

S. Nakamura, Zbl. Min. Gcol. Paläolit. 267 (1905).

O. Schönrock, Handbuchl der Plhysik (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928), 19, p. 750.

N. Wedeneewa, Ann. Phys. 72, 138 (1923).

G. Szivessy and W. Herzog, Z. Instrumentenk. 57, 305 (1937); Physik. Z. 38, 129 (1937).

M. Richartz, Z. Instrumentenk. 60, 357 (1940); 61, 148 (1941).

H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 51 (1948).

A. Cotton and H. Mouton, Ann. chim. et phys. 20, 277 (1910). See also remarks by F. Gabler and P. Sokob, Z. Instrumentenk. 61, 305 (1941).

H. G. Jerrard, J. Sci. Instr. 28, 10 (1951).

H. Poincaré, "Théorie mathématique de la lumière," (Mathemathical theory of light) (in French), Paris 1892, vol. II, p. 275.

C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 491 (1925).

J. Rabinovitch, Compt. rend. 186, 1432 (1928); Rev. Optique (Théor. Instrumr,) 10, 131 (1931).

R. M. Emberson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 63 (1936).

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