Abstract

Sixty-four colors well-distributed near the Munsell 6-plane were viewed as 2° squares surrounded by a 5° black square which was in turn surrounded by a large area of Munsell N6/. The colors were viewed in random order at luminances of −3.34, −2.86, −2.37, −1.88, −1.38, and −0.88 log candles/m2, the illumination being at a color-temperature of about 6500°K. The observer was required to signal by means of a switch whether he observed red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, or grey. No time limit was imposed. Sixteen sets of observations were made by each of two observers, eight sets by a third observer. All had normal color vision. At the lowest luminance only occasional observations of purple were reported, nearly all colors appearing grey. As the luminance was raised, purple appeared first, then blue. The colors along an axis from about 7.5GY to 2.5P required the greatest illumination to appear chromatic. These results show an interesting correspondence with those of Middleton and Holmes on the appearance of colors subtending small angles.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. E. K. Middleton and Marian C. Holmes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 582 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
  3. Container Corporation, Chicago, 1946. The Munsell renotations of the dull sides of these chips are given by Dorothy Nickerson, Paper Trade J., Tappi section 125, 472 (1947).
  4. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. See K. Bullrich, Ber. deut. Wetterdienstes in der US-Zone, No. 4, Bad Kissingen (1948).
  6. Reference 1, p. 591.
  7. See for example, M. Gilbert, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B63, 83 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  8. Reference 2, p. 341.

1950 (1)

See for example, M. Gilbert, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B63, 83 (1950).
[Crossref]

1949 (2)

Bullrich, K.

See K. Bullrich, Ber. deut. Wetterdienstes in der US-Zone, No. 4, Bad Kissingen (1948).

Gilbert, M.

See for example, M. Gilbert, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B63, 83 (1950).
[Crossref]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Holmes, Marian C.

Middleton, W. E. K.

Weaver, K. S.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

See for example, M. Gilbert, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B63, 83 (1950).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

Reference 2, p. 341.

See K. Bullrich, Ber. deut. Wetterdienstes in der US-Zone, No. 4, Bad Kissingen (1948).

Reference 1, p. 591.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Container Corporation, Chicago, 1946. The Munsell renotations of the dull sides of these chips are given by Dorothy Nickerson, Paper Trade J., Tappi section 125, 472 (1947).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the Munsell 6-plane, showing the renotations of the 64 colors used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The field of view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observer C.S. Naming of colors at a luminance of 23 candles/m2. The key to the shading also applies to Figs. 4 to 12 inclusive.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observer E.M. Naming of colors at a luminance of 23 candles/m2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observer C.S. Level A (10−3.34 candle/m2). The solid line encloses the region where chromatic colors were seen in more than 50 percent of the observations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observer C.S. Level B (10−2.86 candle/m2). Solid line as in Fig. 5. Broken line encloses regions in which chromatic colors were seen in all observations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observer C.S. Level C (10−2.37 candle/m2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observer C.S. Level D (10−1.88 candle/m2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Observer C.S. Level E (10−1.38 candle/m2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Observer C.S. Level F (10−0.88 candle/m2).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Observer E.M. Level D (10−1.88 candle/m2).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Observer W.M. Level D (10−1.88 candle/m2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of photometry of adapting field logarithmic units.