Abstract

The excitation potentials of the observed wavelengths of the spectral lines emitted in the low alloy steel spectrum were calculated. Tentative homologous line pairs were selected on the basis of similar excitation potentials and freedom from interferences. The slopes of the working curves were found to be independent of alloying elements, matrix, and discharge conditions. Alterations in the circuit parameters and consequent changes in the discharge had little or no influence upon the intercept of the working curves. Self-reversal of either or both of the alloying element line and the internal standard line was observed. The self-reversal was removed by selecting spectral lines of higher excitation potentials or directing an air blast across the discharge. In this way, the working curves were linear over all concentrations considered. Element interference correction factors, which were found to be functions of the concentration of the interfering element, could be applied to data so that one working curve could be used regardless of the major alloying constituents in the sample. Reproducibility tests indicate some improvement in accuracy when the air blast was employed.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

J. K. Hurwitz and J. Convey, "Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 989_3-989 (1952)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-12-989_3

References

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  1. F. L. Jones, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) 64, 317 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 11, 480 (1940).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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1949 (1)

Williams, Craggs, and Hopwood, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, Part I, 62 (1949).

1947 (3)

D. P. Jensen, Iron Age,  160, 47 (July17, 1947).

J. T. Rozsa, Metal Progress 51, 593 (April, 1947).

C. H. R. Gentry and G. P. Mitchell, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 66, 226 (1947).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

1945 (5)

J. Convey and J. H. Oldfield, J. Iron Steel Inst. No. II,  473 (1945).

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

J. R. Churchill and R. G. Russell, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 24 (1945).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

F. L. Jones, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) 64, 317 (1945).
[Crossref]

1943 (2)

J. H. Coulliette, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 15, 732 (1943).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 425 (1943).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

S. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 11, 480 (1940).
[Crossref]

1939 (1)

Lueg and F. Wolfbank, Metallwirts 18, 1027 (1939).

1938 (1)

G. O. Langstroth and D. R. McRae, Can. J. Research, A 16:61 (1938).
[Crossref]

Bacher, R. F.

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York and London, 1932).

Churchill, J. R.

J. R. Churchill and R. G. Russell, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 24 (1945).
[Crossref]

Clark, J. B.

J. B. Clark, Mathematical and Physical Tables (Oliver and Boyd, Ltd., 1945), twenty-first edition.

Convey, J.

J. Convey and J. H. Oldfield, J. Iron Steel Inst. No. II,  473 (1945).

Coulliette, J. H.

J. H. Coulliette, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 15, 732 (1943).
[Crossref]

Craggs,

Williams, Craggs, and Hopwood, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, Part I, 62 (1949).

Crosswhite, H. M.

Dieke, G. H.

Gentry, C. H. R.

C. H. R. Gentry and G. P. Mitchell, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 66, 226 (1947).
[Crossref]

Goudsmit, S.

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York and London, 1932).

Harrison, G. R.

G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

Hopwood,

Williams, Craggs, and Hopwood, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, Part I, 62 (1949).

Hurley,

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Jensen, D. P.

D. P. Jensen, Iron Age,  160, 47 (July17, 1947).

Jones, F. L.

F. L. Jones, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) 64, 317 (1945).
[Crossref]

Langstroth, G. O.

G. O. Langstroth and D. R. McRae, Can. J. Research, A 16:61 (1938).
[Crossref]

Levy, S.

S. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 11, 480 (1940).
[Crossref]

Lueg,

Lueg and F. Wolfbank, Metallwirts 18, 1027 (1939).

McRae, D. R.

G. O. Langstroth and D. R. McRae, Can. J. Research, A 16:61 (1938).
[Crossref]

Meggers, W. F.

Mitchell, G. P.

C. H. R. Gentry and G. P. Mitchell, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 66, 226 (1947).
[Crossref]

Oldfield, J. H.

J. Convey and J. H. Oldfield, J. Iron Steel Inst. No. II,  473 (1945).

Post,

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Rozsa, J. T.

J. T. Rozsa, Metal Progress 51, 593 (April, 1947).

Russell, R. G.

J. R. Churchill and R. G. Russell, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 24 (1945).
[Crossref]

Schoffstall,

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Williams,

Williams, Craggs, and Hopwood, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, Part I, 62 (1949).

Wolfbank, F.

Lueg and F. Wolfbank, Metallwirts 18, 1027 (1939).

Can. J. Research, A (1)

G. O. Langstroth and D. R. McRae, Can. J. Research, A 16:61 (1938).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. (4)

J. H. Coulliette, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 15, 732 (1943).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

J. R. Churchill and R. G. Russell, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 24 (1945).
[Crossref]

Post, Schoffstall, and Hurley, Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 17, 412 (1945).
[Crossref]

Iron Age (1)

D. P. Jensen, Iron Age,  160, 47 (July17, 1947).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Levy, J. Appl. Phys. 11, 480 (1940).
[Crossref]

J. Iron Steel Inst. No. II (1)

J. Convey and J. H. Oldfield, J. Iron Steel Inst. No. II,  473 (1945).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (1)

C. H. R. Gentry and G. P. Mitchell, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 66, 226 (1947).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) (1)

F. L. Jones, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) 64, 317 (1945).
[Crossref]

Metal Progress (1)

J. T. Rozsa, Metal Progress 51, 593 (April, 1947).

Metallwirts (1)

Lueg and F. Wolfbank, Metallwirts 18, 1027 (1939).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

Williams, Craggs, and Hopwood, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, Part I, 62 (1949).

Other (4)

G. H. Dieke, , 37 (1948).

J. B. Clark, Mathematical and Physical Tables (Oliver and Boyd, Ltd., 1945), twenty-first edition.

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York and London, 1932).

G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Influence of capacity on the intercept of the working curves of homologous and non-homologous spectral line pairs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of capacity on the intercept of working curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the air blast apparatus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nickel working curves illustrating the use of element interference curves and the removal of self-reversal of the internal standard line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromium working curves illustrating the removal of self-reversal by the use of an air blast of different pressures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Steel block showing the appearance of the sparked area with and without the air blast.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Element interference curves for nickel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Element interference curves for chromium.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Element interference curves for manganese.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Excerpt from table of wavelengths and excitation potentials.

Tables Icon

Table II Spectral line pairs and excitation potentials.

Tables Icon

Table III Logarithm of intensities of “arc” and “spark” lines with and without air blast (average of ten spectral).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y 1 = 100 x i M i / [ Fe M Fe + i = 1 n x i M i ]
Fe 1 = 100 Fe M Fe / [ Fe M Fe + i = 1 n x i M i ]
y i / Fe 1 = M Fe / M 1 · x i / Fe = A ( I i / I Fe ) B .
V = c h / e × 10 - 7 T ,
V = 1.240 × 10 - 4 T .
L = 50 μ h ,             C = 5 μ f             and             R = 25.4 ohms .
log x i / Fe = B log I i / I Fe + log A 0 + log A ( x 1 ) + log A ( x 2 ) + log A ( x n )