Abstract

In the course of some preliminary experiments on a new type of resolving power target the phenomenon of spurious resolution has been encountered. It is shown that this false resolution can be explained by a geometrical analysis without recourse to diffraction theory. The intensity distribution in the out-of-focus image of a point source is calculated from spherical aberration data and is integrated over the target by the method of Schade. Representative exposures and microphotometer traces are included. It is pointed out that the plane of best contrast rendition is not necessarily the plane of best resolution. It is demonstrated that counting the number of lines in the image of a multiline target will not always detect spurious resolution.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. C. Gardner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 257 (1950).
  2. F. E. Washer, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 22, 734 (1939).
  3. C. W. Kendall and B. A. Schumacher, Photo Tech. 3, April (1941).
  4. E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 88B, 6 (1948).
  5. L. A. Sayce, Phot. J. 80, 454 (1940).
  6. J. R. Hamblin and T. H. Winser, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 29, 28 (1927).
    [Crossref]
  7. O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 246 (1948).

1950 (1)

I. C. Gardner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 257 (1950).

1948 (2)

E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 88B, 6 (1948).

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 246 (1948).

1941 (1)

C. W. Kendall and B. A. Schumacher, Photo Tech. 3, April (1941).

1940 (1)

L. A. Sayce, Phot. J. 80, 454 (1940).

1939 (1)

F. E. Washer, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 22, 734 (1939).

1927 (1)

J. R. Hamblin and T. H. Winser, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 29, 28 (1927).
[Crossref]

Gardner, I. C.

I. C. Gardner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 257 (1950).

Hamblin, J. R.

J. R. Hamblin and T. H. Winser, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 29, 28 (1927).
[Crossref]

Kendall, C. W.

C. W. Kendall and B. A. Schumacher, Photo Tech. 3, April (1941).

Sayce, L. A.

L. A. Sayce, Phot. J. 80, 454 (1940).

Schade, O. H.

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 246 (1948).

Schumacher, B. A.

C. W. Kendall and B. A. Schumacher, Photo Tech. 3, April (1941).

Selwyn, E. W. H.

E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 88B, 6 (1948).

Washer, F. E.

F. E. Washer, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 22, 734 (1939).

Winser, T. H.

J. R. Hamblin and T. H. Winser, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 29, 28 (1927).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

I. C. Gardner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 257 (1950).

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

F. E. Washer, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 22, 734 (1939).

Phot. J. (2)

E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 88B, 6 (1948).

L. A. Sayce, Phot. J. 80, 454 (1940).

Photo Tech. (1)

C. W. Kendall and B. A. Schumacher, Photo Tech. 3, April (1941).

RCA Rev. (1)

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 246 (1948).

Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) (1)

J. R. Hamblin and T. H. Winser, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 29, 28 (1927).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical out-of-focus exposure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Predicted and observed maxima and minima.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microphotometer traces for lens at f:8. (Lens aperature—f:8; emulsion—V-G.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microphotometer traces for lens at f/5.6. (Lens aperature—f/5.6; emulsion—548 GH.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spherical aberration curve and typical out-of-focus intensity distributions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of experiment with analysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

False resolution with a three-line target.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Positions of best contrast rendition and best resolution. (Lens aperture—f:2.8; emulsion—548 GH.)

Equations (1)

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Minima : Δ f = ( 1.25 + m ) f -number lines per mm . Maxima : Δ f = ( 1.70 + m ) f -number lines per mm .