Abstract

A microphotometer has been designed and built to measure the granularity of photographic deposits in terms of two-dimensional variations in their transmitting properties. These measurements can be made in terms of either density or transmittance, and the diameters of the circular areas on which the measurements are made can be varied from 1.5μ to 78μ on the sample. Either ΔD or ΔT, the conventional density or transmittance differences from the mean, or SΔD, or SΔT, the syzygetic density or transmittance differences between immediately adjacent surface elements of equal area, are measured and recorded automatically. The instrument will make a reading, record this reading, and move the sample to a new area at the rate of approximately one reading every three seconds. When a sufficient number of readings, normally at least 300, have been made, the recorder plots the results as a frequency distribution curve.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. van Kreveld, Phot. J. 74, 590 (1934); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 170 (1936); A. van Kreveld and J. C. Scheffer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 100 (1937). A. Goetz and W. O. Gould, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engr. 29, 510 (1937); Goetz, Gould, and Dember, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 34, 279 (1940); A. Goetz and F. W. Brown, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 39, 375 (1942). E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 75, 571 (1935); Phot. J. 79, 513 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 435 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).
  4. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 217 (1947).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 41 (1950).
    [CrossRef]

1950 (1)

1947 (1)

1946 (1)

1945 (1)

1934 (1)

A. van Kreveld, Phot. J. 74, 590 (1934); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 170 (1936); A. van Kreveld and J. C. Scheffer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 100 (1937). A. Goetz and W. O. Gould, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engr. 29, 510 (1937); Goetz, Gould, and Dember, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 34, 279 (1940); A. Goetz and F. W. Brown, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 39, 375 (1942). E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 75, 571 (1935); Phot. J. 79, 513 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, G. C.

Jones, L. A.

van Kreveld, A.

A. van Kreveld, Phot. J. 74, 590 (1934); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 170 (1936); A. van Kreveld and J. C. Scheffer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 100 (1937). A. Goetz and W. O. Gould, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engr. 29, 510 (1937); Goetz, Gould, and Dember, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 34, 279 (1940); A. Goetz and F. W. Brown, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 39, 375 (1942). E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 75, 571 (1935); Phot. J. 79, 513 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Phot. J. (1)

A. van Kreveld, Phot. J. 74, 590 (1934); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 170 (1936); A. van Kreveld and J. C. Scheffer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 100 (1937). A. Goetz and W. O. Gould, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engr. 29, 510 (1937); Goetz, Gould, and Dember, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 34, 279 (1940); A. Goetz and F. W. Brown, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 39, 375 (1942). E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. J. 75, 571 (1935); Phot. J. 79, 513 (1939).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microphotometer for the measurement of granularity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of microphotometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample holder and components to produce periodic lateral movements of the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Double-aperture plates which control scanning area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Knife edges for alternately uncovering each of the adjacent apertures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ball-drop mechanism for automatically recording granularity data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative frequency of occurrence of syzygetic density differences as a function of the number of observations. The ○’s represent data obtained after 100 observations; x’s represent those after 200 observations; ϕ’s represent those after 300 observations; △’s represent those after 600 observations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative frequency of occurrence of syzygetic density differences as obtained from two independent determinations. Each set of points represents 300 observations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative frequency of occurrence of syzygetic transmittance differences.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative frequency of occurrence of transmittance differences from the mean.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative frequency of occurrence of syzygetic density differences.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relative frequency of occurrence of density differences from the mean.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Relative frequency of occurrence of syzygetic density differences for measurements on a single sample with scanning apertures of various diameters.