Abstract

Several sets of data on visual sensitivity to color differences are now available. All of these data, however, have been obtained using optical arrangements differing from those employed in practical color matching. Data on visual sensitivity to color differences on textiles under ordinary viewing conditions have been obtained in this study to check the validity of the previous data for practical use.

Observations were made by four professional colorists on a red, a blue, and a green series of wool dyeings. Each series contained about twenty samples, and each sample was judged independently against a standard three times by each observer. Since dyers’ terminology was used, a means of conversion to I.C.I. notation had to be developed.

The MacAdam ellipses are found to be a good representation of visual sensitivity to chromaticity differences under common viewing conditions, providing these ellipses are taken to represent a difference somewhat larger than a least perceptible difference rather than the 13 L.P.D. reported by MacAdam. Visual sensitivity to differences in apparent luminous reflectance is found to be about 0.1 Munsell value steps, or considerably poorer than that which has previously been reported.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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1949 (2)

1946 (1)

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. Series 7,  37, 126 (1946).

1944 (1)

1942 (3)

1941 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

1939 (2)

D. B. Judd, Textile Research J. 9, No. 7, 253 (1939).
[Crossref]

I. A. Balinkin, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 428 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

1935 (2)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

R. D. Nutting, Textile Research J. 6, No. 2, 107 (1935).

1933 (1)

1926 (1)

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 13, 25 (1926).
[Crossref]

Balinkin, I. A.

I. A. Balinkin, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 428 (1939).
[Crossref]

Bellamy, B.

Brickwedde, F. G.

Brown, W. J. R.

Davidson, H. R.

Granville, W. C.

Guilford, J. P.

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936), p. 115.

Imm, L. W.

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 13, 25 (1926).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Textile Research J. 9, No. 7, 253 (1939).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

Lowry, E. M.

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 13, 25 (1926).
[Crossref]

MacAdam, D. L.

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

Nutting, R. D.

R. D. Nutting, Textile Research J. 6, No. 2, 107 (1935).

Platt, W. W.

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Priest, I. G.

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. Series 7,  37, 126 (1946).

Skinkle, J. H.

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Stultz, K. F.

Tyndall, E. P. T.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

Am. Dyestuff Reptr. (1)

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

I. A. Balinkin, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 428 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 13, 25 (1926).
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. Series 7 (1)

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. Series 7,  37, 126 (1946).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

Textile Research J. (2)

D. B. Judd, Textile Research J. 9, No. 7, 253 (1939).
[Crossref]

R. D. Nutting, Textile Research J. 6, No. 2, 107 (1935).

Other (1)

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936), p. 115.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of I.C.I. data for red samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of I.C.I. data for blue samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of I.C.I. data for green samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contours of brightness and strength for red samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contours of brightness and strength for blue samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contours of brightness and strength for green samples.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Average visual judgments.

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Table II Judgments based on measurements.

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Table III Percentage scores for judgments by colorists and by measurements, assuming the average visual judgment to be correct.

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Table IV Color difference limens as determined by several investigators.