Abstract

This paper reviews the 25 years of activity, by the author and his co-workers, in the development of synthetic sheet polarizers. The early work during the nineteenth century is described briefly, and then the various stages of the modern development in the author’s laboratory are chronicled. A description is given of the nature and the optical properties of the currently-available sheet polarizers of the Polaroid J, H, K, and L types, and of the quantitative methods used in characterizing them. The reasons are given for developing special polarizers for each of a variety of applications such as optical instruments, vectographs, and headlights.

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References

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  1. W. B. Herapath, Phil. Mag. (4th ser.) 3, 161 (1852).
  2. F. Bernauer, Fortschr. d. Mineralogie 19, 22 (1935).
  3. D. Brewster, The Kaleidoscope, Its History, Theory, and Construction (John Murray, London, 1858), second edition.
  4. H. Ambronn, Ann. Physik u. Chem. 34, 340 (1888).
  5. R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 803(A) (1945).
  6. E. H. Land and C. D. West, "Dichroism and Dichroic Polarizers." Colloid Chemistry, J. Alexander, Ed. (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1946), Vol. 6, pp. 160–190. This paper contains much original data, and lists many references to articles and patents concerning polarized light, including those of Käsemann and Marks. Dreyer's work is first described in U. S. Patent 2400877, 1946.
  7. E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 230 (1940); see also p. 164 of reference 6 regarding the work of Land and Mahler.
  8. E. F. W. Alexanderson and R. D. Kell, U. S. Patent 1783031, 1930.
  9. V. J. Roper, Traffic Engineering 19, 151 (1949), and E. H. Land and L. W. Chubb, Jr., Traffic Engineering 20, 265 and 384, 399 (1950).

Alexanderson, E. F. W.

E. F. W. Alexanderson and R. D. Kell, U. S. Patent 1783031, 1930.

Ambronn, H.

H. Ambronn, Ann. Physik u. Chem. 34, 340 (1888).

Bernauer, F.

F. Bernauer, Fortschr. d. Mineralogie 19, 22 (1935).

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, The Kaleidoscope, Its History, Theory, and Construction (John Murray, London, 1858), second edition.

Herapath, W. B.

W. B. Herapath, Phil. Mag. (4th ser.) 3, 161 (1852).

Jones, R. Clark

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 803(A) (1945).

Kell, R. D.

E. F. W. Alexanderson and R. D. Kell, U. S. Patent 1783031, 1930.

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land and C. D. West, "Dichroism and Dichroic Polarizers." Colloid Chemistry, J. Alexander, Ed. (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1946), Vol. 6, pp. 160–190. This paper contains much original data, and lists many references to articles and patents concerning polarized light, including those of Käsemann and Marks. Dreyer's work is first described in U. S. Patent 2400877, 1946.

E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 230 (1940); see also p. 164 of reference 6 regarding the work of Land and Mahler.

Roper, V. J.

V. J. Roper, Traffic Engineering 19, 151 (1949), and E. H. Land and L. W. Chubb, Jr., Traffic Engineering 20, 265 and 384, 399 (1950).

West, C. D.

E. H. Land and C. D. West, "Dichroism and Dichroic Polarizers." Colloid Chemistry, J. Alexander, Ed. (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1946), Vol. 6, pp. 160–190. This paper contains much original data, and lists many references to articles and patents concerning polarized light, including those of Käsemann and Marks. Dreyer's work is first described in U. S. Patent 2400877, 1946.

Other

W. B. Herapath, Phil. Mag. (4th ser.) 3, 161 (1852).

F. Bernauer, Fortschr. d. Mineralogie 19, 22 (1935).

D. Brewster, The Kaleidoscope, Its History, Theory, and Construction (John Murray, London, 1858), second edition.

H. Ambronn, Ann. Physik u. Chem. 34, 340 (1888).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 803(A) (1945).

E. H. Land and C. D. West, "Dichroism and Dichroic Polarizers." Colloid Chemistry, J. Alexander, Ed. (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1946), Vol. 6, pp. 160–190. This paper contains much original data, and lists many references to articles and patents concerning polarized light, including those of Käsemann and Marks. Dreyer's work is first described in U. S. Patent 2400877, 1946.

E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 230 (1940); see also p. 164 of reference 6 regarding the work of Land and Mahler.

E. F. W. Alexanderson and R. D. Kell, U. S. Patent 1783031, 1930.

V. J. Roper, Traffic Engineering 19, 151 (1949), and E. H. Land and L. W. Chubb, Jr., Traffic Engineering 20, 265 and 384, 399 (1950).

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