Abstract

In this paper the contribution of the accommodation to some visual tasks, particularly in the range of low luminous levels, is considered. Theories are described regarding accommodation as well as the changes produced in the eye during the accommodation process. The visual process, when the eye is adapted to darkness and the luminous stimulus has luminances not bigger than a given value, is described as well as the phenomena of night myopia and presbyopia, which appear when the eye is working under such conditions, and the influence which both phenomena have on the visual performance. These latter effects are related to the mechanism of accommodation, since it involves a loss of the accommodative faculty. A critical study is given of the causes proposed by different researchers in order to explain the phenomenon of night myopia, and finally experimental evidence is presented proving that the main cause of night myopia is closely related to the mechanism of accommodation. Measurement of the size of the Purkinje images by photographing the eye in full darkness provides a measure of night myopia. It was observed that the position of rest of the eye-lens, i.e., the position it takes when there is no stimulus to put the mechanism of accommodation in action, is not focused to infinity but to a distance of about 0.8 meter. The discovery of this rest position of the eye gives a more logical construction to the Helmholtz-Gullstrand theory of accommodation.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, Ed. Leopold Voss (Hamburg-Leipzig, Germany, 1909), p. 120.
  2. Gullstrand, see reference 1, p. 327.
  3. Fincham, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 26, 239 (1924–1925).
    [Crossref]
  4. Ivanoff, Rev. optique 26, 145 (1947).
  5. Koomen, Tousey, and Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 370 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Van Heel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 237 (1946).
    [PubMed]
  7. Wald and Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 449 (1945).
  9. Freeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 285 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  10. Luckiesh and Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 25 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  11. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 1097 (1950).
  12. Rayleigh, Proc. Phil. Soc. 4, 4 (1883).
  13. Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 37, 459 (1941).
  14. See reference 7, p. 324, “Observations.”
  15. Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).
  16. Schober, Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 148, 171 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  17. Hamburger, Das Sehen in der Dämmerung (Vienna, 1949), pp. 102–106.
  18. Katz, Klinische Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde 111, 219 (1945–1946).
  19. Kühl, Fragen der Technik (Munich, 1950), p. 485.
  20. Schupfer, Boll. Ass. Ott. Ital. 18, No. 1 (1944).
  21. Ronchi, Ottica 8, 153 (1943).
  22. Cabello and Jiménez-Landi, Anales Fís. y Quím. 34, 597 (1943).
  23. Durán, Anales Fís. Quím. 34, 597 (1943).
  24. Palacios, Investigación y Progreso, September-October, 1943.
  25. Cabello, See reference (8), pages 450 and 451.
  26. Yves Le Grand, Compt. rend. 230, 1422 (1950).
  27. Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).
  28. Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 39, 567 (1943).
  29. Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 439 (1945).
  30. See reference 8, page 455.
  31. Otero and Cabello, Anales de Fís. y Quím. 41, 427 (1945).
  32. Luckiesh and Moss, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 352 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  33. Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).
  34. Otero, Plaza, and Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (3)

Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 1097 (1950).

Yves Le Grand, Compt. rend. 230, 1422 (1950).

Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).

1949 (2)

1948 (2)

Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).

Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).

1947 (3)

Schober, Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 148, 171 (1947).
[Crossref]

Wald and Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanoff, Rev. optique 26, 145 (1947).

1946 (1)

1945 (3)

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 449 (1945).

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 439 (1945).

Otero and Cabello, Anales de Fís. y Quím. 41, 427 (1945).

1944 (1)

Schupfer, Boll. Ass. Ott. Ital. 18, No. 1 (1944).

1943 (5)

Ronchi, Ottica 8, 153 (1943).

Cabello and Jiménez-Landi, Anales Fís. y Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Durán, Anales Fís. Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Palacios, Investigación y Progreso, September-October, 1943.

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 39, 567 (1943).

1941 (1)

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 37, 459 (1941).

1940 (1)

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 352 (1940).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

1932 (1)

1883 (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. Phil. Soc. 4, 4 (1883).

Arnulf,

Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).

Blackwell,

Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 1097 (1950).

Cabello,

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 439 (1945).

Otero and Cabello, Anales de Fís. y Quím. 41, 427 (1945).

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 449 (1945).

Cabello and Jiménez-Landi, Anales Fís. y Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Cabello, See reference (8), pages 450 and 451.

Durán,

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 39, 567 (1943).

Durán, Anales Fís. Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 37, 459 (1941).

Fincham,

Fincham, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 26, 239 (1924–1925).
[Crossref]

Flamant,

Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).

Françon,

Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).

Freeman,

Gálvez,

Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).

Griffin,

Gullstrand,

Gullstrand, see reference 1, p. 327.

Hamburger,

Hamburger, Das Sehen in der Dämmerung (Vienna, 1949), pp. 102–106.

Helmholtz,

Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, Ed. Leopold Voss (Hamburg-Leipzig, Germany, 1909), p. 120.

Ivanoff,

Ivanoff, Rev. optique 26, 145 (1947).

Jiménez-Landi,

Cabello and Jiménez-Landi, Anales Fís. y Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Katz,

Katz, Klinische Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde 111, 219 (1945–1946).

Koomen,

Kühl,

Kühl, Fragen der Technik (Munich, 1950), p. 485.

Luckiesh,

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 352 (1940).
[Crossref]

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 25 (1933).
[Crossref]

Moss,

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 352 (1940).
[Crossref]

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 25 (1933).
[Crossref]

Otero,

Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).

Otero, Plaza, and Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).

Otero and Cabello, Anales de Fís. y Quím. 41, 427 (1945).

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 39, 567 (1943).

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 37, 459 (1941).

Palacios,

Palacios, Investigación y Progreso, September-October, 1943.

Plaza,

Otero, Plaza, and Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Proc. Phil. Soc. 4, 4 (1883).

Ríos,

Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).

Ronchi,

Ronchi, Ottica 8, 153 (1943).

Salaverri,

Schober,

Schober, Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 148, 171 (1947).
[Crossref]

Schupfer,

Schupfer, Boll. Ass. Ott. Ital. 18, No. 1 (1944).

Scolnik,

Tousey,

Van Heel,

Vigón,

Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).

Wald,

Yves Le Grand,

Yves Le Grand, Compt. rend. 230, 1422 (1950).

Anales de Fís. y Quím. (1)

Otero and Cabello, Anales de Fís. y Quím. 41, 427 (1945).

Anales Fís. Quím. (1)

Durán, Anales Fís. Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Anales Fís. y Quím. (7)

Otero, Vigón, and Gálvez, Anales Fís. y Quím. 46, 227 (1950).

Cabello and Jiménez-Landi, Anales Fís. y Quím. 34, 597 (1943).

Otero, Plaza, and Ríos, Anales Fís. y Quím. 44, 293 (1948).

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 39, 567 (1943).

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 439 (1945).

Cabello, Anales Fís. y Quím. 41, 449 (1945).

Otero and Durán, Anales Fís. y Quím. 37, 459 (1941).

Boll. Ass. Ott. Ital. (1)

Schupfer, Boll. Ass. Ott. Ital. 18, No. 1 (1944).

Compt. rend. (1)

Yves Le Grand, Compt. rend. 230, 1422 (1950).

Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

Schober, Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 148, 171 (1947).
[Crossref]

Investigación y Progreso (1)

Palacios, Investigación y Progreso, September-October, 1943.

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

Luckiesh and Moss, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 352 (1940).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Klinische Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde (1)

Katz, Klinische Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde 111, 219 (1945–1946).

Ottica (1)

Ronchi, Ottica 8, 153 (1943).

Proc. Phil. Soc. (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. Phil. Soc. 4, 4 (1883).

Rev. optique (2)

Ivanoff, Rev. optique 26, 145 (1947).

Arnulf, Flamant, and Françon, Rev. optique 27, 741 (1948).

Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) (1)

Fincham, Trans. Opt. Soc. (London) 26, 239 (1924–1925).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, Ed. Leopold Voss (Hamburg-Leipzig, Germany, 1909), p. 120.

Gullstrand, see reference 1, p. 327.

Kühl, Fragen der Technik (Munich, 1950), p. 485.

Hamburger, Das Sehen in der Dämmerung (Vienna, 1949), pp. 102–106.

See reference 7, p. 324, “Observations.”

See reference 8, page 455.

Cabello, See reference (8), pages 450 and 451.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic plot of the process of accommodation after Helmholtz, Gullstrand, and Fincham. Both extreme positions are represented.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spherical aberration of the eye obtained at different states of accommodation by Ivanoff (1947).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Accommodation interval of the eye at different luminous levels and state of accommodation in which the visual acuity is maximum at each luminous level.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Minimum amount of light required to resolve a pattern as a function of the accommodation of the eye for three observers (Otero, Durán, 1941).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visual acuity versus test luminance with normal eye and with corrected night myopia (Cabello, Jiménez-Landi, 1943).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the accommodation interval with the decrease of the test luminance for three observers (Durán, 1943).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change of the best focus plane with the pupil diameter for 6 observers (Otero, Plaza, Ríos, 1948).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Values of night myopia for different monochromatic lights (Cabello, 1945).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Accommodation interval and value of the night myopia of three subjects, myopic, presbyopic, and aphasic, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Accommodation interval as a function of luminance for the normal eye and for the eye with atropine.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Device used to take the pictures of the Purkinje images in complete darkness.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pictures of the second Purkinje images obtained in complete darkness and with the eye accommodated at 13 meters. It can be seen that the first one is smaller and therefore in darkness the eye is accommodated at a distance less than 13 meters.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Ratio between the sizes of the second and the first Purkinje images plotted against distance of accommodation in meters, also the same ratio plotted against state of accommodation (diopters).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Absolute threshold in different parts of the retina as a function of accommodation (Otero, Plaza, and Salaverri, 1949).