Abstract

<p>Analysis of spectral response peaks shows that receptor curves can hardly be deduced by psychophysics or nerve physiology. Conversely, however, even the two known dyes may suffice for all the spectral response peaks, narrow or wide. The detailed structure of the receptor is basis for a masking mechanism which accounts for 3 absorptions, peaked near 510, 540, and 620 mµ. From these, synaptic mechanisms can produce 4 color primaries at the bipolar level, and 6 selectivities at the fiber level. The synaptic detail for this (based on Polyak, Willmer, Müller, and Adams) separates white, and provides for dichromasies, unitary hues, saturation, and nonlinearity of color-limens.</p><p>By such mechanism, color antagonists may be transmitted by simple modulation of a mean frequency. Transmission has only a transient appearance, due to a series of electrochemical counter-effects which give minimal signal for steady-state information. Amacrine cells and retinal polarizations apparently relate to this, and thereby constancy and lateral induction of black and hue. Acuity in continuous illumination, in a system which transmits mainly transients, is handled by a scanning system. Other counterparts to color television are discussed.</p>

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. W. F. Grether, J. Expt. Psych. 30, 69 (1942); 28, 419 (1941).
  2. S. Polyak, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).
  3. R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 65 (1949).
  4. G. Wald, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).
  5. E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1947).
  6. D. B. Judd, personal communication (1951).
  7. L. C. Thompson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 505 (1949).
  8. A. C. Kraus, Biol. Symp. 7, 23 (1942).
  9. P. Karrer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 259 (1938).
  10. F. D. Collins and R. A. Morton, Nature 167, 673 (1951).
  11. H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 674 (1951).
  12. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 89 (1943).
  13. H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill, Ltd. London, 1950).
  14. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
  15. W. S. Stiles, Nature 154, 290 (1944).
  16. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).
  17. W. D. Wright, Researches in Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  18. W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
  19. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
  20. R. J. Lythgoe, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 321 (1938).
  21. H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 794 (1948).
  22. A. Magitot, Traite d'Ophthalmol. 2, 484 (1939).
  23. K. Tansley, Doc. Ophthalmol. 4, 116 (1950).
  24. W. J. Schmidt, Protoplasma Monographien 11, 388 (1937).
  25. W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).
  26. B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949), B. Thorell and F. Ruch, Nature 167, 815 (1951).
  27. R. J. Lythgoe, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).
  28. J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 26, 26 (1942).
  29. B. O'Brien, this symposium (1951).
  30. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 210 (1951).
  31. Broda, Goodeve, and Lythgoe, J. Physiol. 98, 397 (1940).
  32. C. Wald, Colloid Chemistry (Alexander) (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1944), 5, 753.
  33. G. Wald, Science 113, 474 (1951).
  34. G. Wald, Science 113, 287 (1951).
  35. L. E. R. Picken, Biol. Rev. 14, 146 (1940).
  36. H. E. Roaf, Physiol. Rev. 13, 43 (1933).
  37. V. O. Siven, Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 42, 224 (1908).
  38. A. König, Gesamelte Abhandlung: Physiol. Optics (Johann Barth, Leipzig, 1903).
  39. W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Supp. 9, (1938).
  40. E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 111, 17P (1949).
  41. H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
  42. W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthmol. 3, 135 (1949).
  43. E. L. M. Baumgardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 269 (1948).
  44. H. A. Van der Velden, Ophthalmol. 111, 321 (1946).
  45. See reference 19, p. 279.
  46. A. F. Bliss, J. Gen. Physiol. 29, 277 (1946).
  47. F. N. Willmer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 194 (1939).
  48. Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546 (1947).
  49. M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947).
  50. S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942); M. H. Pirenne Nature 161, 724 (1947).
  51. H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).
  52. E. C. Chaffee and A. Hampson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1 (1924).
  53. D. B. Judd, Handbook Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), Chapter 22.
  54. S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).
  55. W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).
  56. J. S. Preston, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 757 (1939).
  57. A. Dresler, Das Licht 10, 79 (1940).
  58. J. P. Bartz and F. O. Schmitt, Am. J. Physiol. 177, 280 (1936).
  59. R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 7 (1938).
  60. C. B. Anfinson, J. Biol. Chem. 152, 267 (1944).
  61. R. Dittler, Hb. d. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 270 (1929).
  62. M. Schultze, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 215 (1867); 5, 1 (1869); 5, 379 (1869).
  63. In humans, R. Greif, Graefe Saemische Hb. d. Augenheilkunde, 2nd Ed. 1, 1899 (1931).
  64. W. Zenker, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 248 (1867).
  65. E. V. Dungern, Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 346 (1920).
  66. F. O. Schmitt and R. S. Bear, Biol. Rev. 14, 27 (1939).
  67. F. S. Sjöstrand, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1188 (1948).
  68. L. E. Gilson, Chem. Abstracts 31, 1830 (1937).
  69. A. N. Winchell, Optical Properties of Organic Compounds (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1943).
  70. F. Weigert and J. W. Morton, Ophthalmol. 99, 145 (1940).
  71. W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), A 216, 91 (1916).
  72. G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).
  73. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).
  74. E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).
  75. S. Hecht, Handbook Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
  76. W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Suppl. 9, 80 (1938).
  77. G. H. Bishop, Am. J. Physiol. 106, 460 (1933).
  78. E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).
  79. A. Putter, Hb. d. Augenheilkunde II/1 2, 370 (1908).
  80. W. E. L. Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205 (1942).
  81. C. Brooks, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 401 (1948).
  82. W. E. L. Clark and L. Chako, Nature 160, 123 (1947).
  83. J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).
  84. R. M. Hanes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 28 (1951).
  85. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer 33, 444 (1943).
  86. C. G. Barnhard, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942).
  87. Riggs, Berry, and Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 423 (1949).
  88. H. Piper, Arch. Anat. Physiol. 122, 85 (1911).
  89. R. Granit and R. Munsterhelm, J. Physiol. 88, 436 (1937).
  90. S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, unpublished expts. (1951).
  91. R. Granit, Erg. d. Physiol. 46, 31 (1950).
  92. R. Granit, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 137 (1941).
  93. R. Granit, J. Physiol. 103, 103 (1944).
  94. R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).
  95. B. Gernandt, J. Neurophysiol. 10, 307 (1947).
  96. R. Granit, J. Neurophys. 11, 253 (1948).
  97. H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).
  98. S. W. Kuffler, personal communication (1951).
  99. D. P. C. Lloyd, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 184 (1941).
  100. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
  101. D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 54, 289 (1941).
  102. H. K. Hartline, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 1, 277 (1932).
  103. B. Gernandt, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 15, 88 (1948).
  104. C. G. Bernhard, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942); J. Neurophysiol. 5, 32 (1942).
  105. A. Kohlrausch, Hb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12/2, 1394 (1931).
  106. L. Carmichael, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1948).
  107. E. S. Lamar, et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).
  108. R. B. Morison and D. L. Bassett, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 309 (1945).
  109. S. A. Talbot, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).
  110. F. H. Lewy and G. D. Gammon, J. Neurophysiol. 3, 388 (1940).
  111. J. R. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).
  112. R. Cohn, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 31 (1948).
  113. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 166 (1947).
  114. J. Hecht and E. D. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 593 (1939).
  115. G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 718 (1944).
  116. S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).
  117. G. C. Higgins and K. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 756 (1948).
  118. W. Pitts, W. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).
  119. S. E. Henschen, Acta Psychiat. Neurol. 6, 347 (1931).
  120. G. Szekeres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 350 (1948).
  121. J. Ten Doesschate, Ophthalmol. 112, 1 (1946).
  122. C. E. Shannon, Bell System Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).
  123. H. Jacobson, Science 113, 292 (1951).
  124. A. V. Bedford, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. (1950).
  125. A. V. Loughren and C. J. Hirsh, Electronics 24/2, 92 (1951).
  126. D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).
  127. K. Motokawa et al., Nature 167, 630 (1951).
  128. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
  129. W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).
  130. D. L. Macadam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).
  131. L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 1 (1943).
  132. E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1950).
  133. E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 109, XP (1949).
  134. E. N. Willmer, Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 2/2, 53 (1950).
  135. D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
  136. J. D. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).
  137. J. Guild, "Discussion on Vision," Phys. Soc. (London), p. 85 (1932).
  138. See reference 137, p. 13.
  139. J. C. Maxwell, quoted by F. D. Richtmyer, Phys. Today 4, 11 (1951).
  140. J. H. Woodger, Biological Principles (Routledge and Paul, London, 1929).

Abney, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), A 216, 91 (1916).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).

Anfinson, C. B.

C. B. Anfinson, J. Biol. Chem. 152, 267 (1944).

Barnhard, C. G.

C. G. Barnhard, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942).

Bartz, J. P.

J. P. Bartz and F. O. Schmitt, Am. J. Physiol. 177, 280 (1936).

Bassett, D. L.

R. B. Morison and D. L. Bassett, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 309 (1945).

Baumgardt, E. L. M.

E. L. M. Baumgardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 269 (1948).

Bear, R. S.

F. O. Schmitt and R. S. Bear, Biol. Rev. 14, 27 (1939).

Bedford, A. V.

A. V. Bedford, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. (1950).

Bernhard, C. G.

C. G. Bernhard, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942); J. Neurophysiol. 5, 32 (1942).

Bishop, G. H.

G. H. Bishop, Am. J. Physiol. 106, 460 (1933).

Bliss, A. F.

A. F. Bliss, J. Gen. Physiol. 29, 277 (1946).

Brooks, C.

C. Brooks, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 401 (1948).

Byram, G. M.

G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 718 (1944).

Carmichael, L.

L. Carmichael, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1948).

Chaffee, E. C.

E. C. Chaffee and A. Hampson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1 (1924).

Chako, L.

W. E. L. Clark and L. Chako, Nature 160, 123 (1947).

Clark, W. E. L.

W. E. L. Clark and L. Chako, Nature 160, 123 (1947).

W. E. L. Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205 (1942).

Cohn, R.

R. Cohn, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 31 (1948).

Collins, F. D.

F. D. Collins and R. A. Morton, Nature 167, 673 (1951).

Commoner, B.

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949), B. Thorell and F. Ruch, Nature 167, 815 (1951).

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 794 (1948).

De Vries, H.

H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).

Dittler, R.

R. Dittler, Hb. d. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 270 (1929).

Doesschate, J. Ten

J. Ten Doesschate, Ophthalmol. 112, 1 (1946).

Dresler, A.

A. Dresler, Das Licht 10, 79 (1940).

Dungern, E. V.

E. V. Dungern, Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 346 (1920).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 166 (1947).

Gammon, G. D.

F. H. Lewy and G. D. Gammon, J. Neurophysiol. 3, 388 (1940).

Gernandt, B.

B. Gernandt, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 15, 88 (1948).

B. Gernandt, J. Neurophysiol. 10, 307 (1947).

Gilson, L. E.

L. E. Gilson, Chem. Abstracts 31, 1830 (1937).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, J. Physiol. 103, 103 (1944).

R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 7 (1938).

R. Granit and R. Munsterhelm, J. Physiol. 88, 436 (1937).

R. Granit, Erg. d. Physiol. 46, 31 (1950).

R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 65 (1949).

R. Granit, J. Neurophys. 11, 253 (1948).

R. Granit, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 137 (1941).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Supp. 9, (1938).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Suppl. 9, 80 (1938).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

Greif, R.

In humans, R. Greif, Graefe Saemische Hb. d. Augenheilkunde, 2nd Ed. 1, 1899 (1931).

Grether, W. F.

W. F. Grether, J. Expt. Psych. 30, 69 (1942); 28, 419 (1941).

Guild, J.

J. Guild, "Discussion on Vision," Phys. Soc. (London), p. 85 (1932).

Hampson, A.

E. C. Chaffee and A. Hampson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1 (1924).

Hanes, R. M.

R. M. Hanes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 28 (1951).

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

H. K. Hartline, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 1, 277 (1932).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill, Ltd. London, 1950).

H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 674 (1951).

Hecht, J.

J. Hecht and E. D. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 593 (1939).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942); M. H. Pirenne Nature 161, 724 (1947).

S. Hecht, Handbook Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

Henschen, S. E.

S. E. Henschen, Acta Psychiat. Neurol. 6, 347 (1931).

Higgins, G. C.

G. C. Higgins and K. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 756 (1948).

Hirsh, C. J.

A. V. Loughren and C. J. Hirsh, Electronics 24/2, 92 (1951).

Jacobson, H.

H. Jacobson, Science 113, 292 (1951).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, personal communication (1951).

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).

D. B. Judd, Handbook Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), Chapter 22.

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 54, 289 (1941).

D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).

Karrer, P.

P. Karrer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 259 (1938).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Hb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12/2, 1394 (1931).

König, A.

A. König, Gesamelte Abhandlung: Physiol. Optics (Johann Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

Kraus, A. C.

A. C. Kraus, Biol. Symp. 7, 23 (1942).

Kuffler, S. W.

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, unpublished expts. (1951).

S. W. Kuffler, personal communication (1951).

Lamar, E. S.

E. S. Lamar, et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

Lewy, F. H.

F. H. Lewy and G. D. Gammon, J. Neurophysiol. 3, 388 (1940).

Lipkin, D.

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949), B. Thorell and F. Ruch, Nature 167, 815 (1951).

Lloyd, D. P. C.

D. P. C. Lloyd, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 184 (1941).

Loughren, A. V.

A. V. Loughren and C. J. Hirsh, Electronics 24/2, 92 (1951).

Lythgoe, R. J.

R. J. Lythgoe, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).

R. J. Lythgoe, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 321 (1938).

Macadam, D. L.

D. L. Macadam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).

Magitot, A.

A. Magitot, Traite d'Ophthalmol. 2, 484 (1939).

Marshall, W. H.

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, quoted by F. D. Richtmyer, Phys. Today 4, 11 (1951).

McDonald, P. R.

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

Milner, B. I.

J. D. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).

Mintz, E. D.

J. Hecht and E. D. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 593 (1939).

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer 33, 444 (1943).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 89 (1943).

Morison, R. B.

R. B. Morison and D. L. Bassett, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 309 (1945).

Morton, J. W.

F. Weigert and J. W. Morton, Ophthalmol. 99, 145 (1940).

Morton, R. A.

F. D. Collins and R. A. Morton, Nature 167, 673 (1951).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).

K. Motokawa et al., Nature 167, 630 (1951).

Munsterhelm, R.

R. Granit and R. Munsterhelm, J. Physiol. 88, 436 (1937).

O’Brien, B.

B. O'Brien, this symposium (1951).

Ornstein, L. S.

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

Osterberg, G.

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).

Peskin, J. C.

J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 26, 26 (1942).

Picken, L. E. R.

L. E. R. Picken, Biol. Rev. 14, 146 (1940).

Piper, H.

H. Piper, Arch. Anat. Physiol. 122, 85 (1911).

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).

Pitts, W.

W. Pitts, W. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

S. Polyak, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).

Preston, J. S.

J. S. Preston, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 757 (1939).

Putter, A.

A. Putter, Hb. d. Augenheilkunde II/1 2, 370 (1908).

Roaf, H. E.

H. E. Roaf, Physiol. Rev. 13, 43 (1933).

Rose, A.

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 210 (1951).

Saunderson, J. D.

J. D. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).

Schmidt, W. J.

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

W. J. Schmidt, Protoplasma Monographien 11, 388 (1937).

Schmitt, F. O.

J. P. Bartz and F. O. Schmitt, Am. J. Physiol. 177, 280 (1936).

F. O. Schmitt and R. S. Bear, Biol. Rev. 14, 27 (1939).

Schouten, J. F.

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 215 (1867); 5, 1 (1869); 5, 379 (1869).

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, Bell System Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 1 (1943).

Siven, V. O.

V. O. Siven, Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 42, 224 (1908).

Sjöstrand, F. S.

F. S. Sjöstrand, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1188 (1948).

Sloan, L.

L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 89 (1943).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer 33, 444 (1943).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthmol. 3, 135 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Nature 154, 290 (1944).

Stultz, K.

G. C. Higgins and K. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 756 (1948).

Szekeres, G.

G. Szekeres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 350 (1948).

Talbot, S. A.

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, unpublished expts. (1951).

S. A. Talbot, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

Tansley, K.

K. Tansley, Doc. Ophthalmol. 4, 116 (1950).

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

Thompson, L. C.

L. C. Thompson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 505 (1949).

Toman, J. R.

J. R. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).

Van der Velden, H. A.

H. A. Van der Velden, Ophthalmol. 111, 321 (1946).

Wald, C.

C. Wald, Colloid Chemistry (Alexander) (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1944), 5, 753.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).

G. Wald, Science 113, 287 (1951).

G. Wald, Science 113, 474 (1951).

Watson, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), A 216, 91 (1916).

Weigert, F.

F. Weigert and J. W. Morton, Ophthalmol. 99, 145 (1940).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 111, 17P (1949).

E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1950).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 109, XP (1949).

E. N. Willmer, Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 2/2, 53 (1950).

E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1947).

Willmer, F. N.

F. N. Willmer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 194 (1939).

Winchell, A. N.

A. N. Winchell, Optical Properties of Organic Compounds (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1943).

Woodger, J. H.

J. H. Woodger, Biological Principles (Routledge and Paul, London, 1929).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches in Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Suppl. 9, 80 (1938).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Supp. 9, (1938).

Zenker, W.

W. Zenker, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 248 (1867).

Other (140)

W. F. Grether, J. Expt. Psych. 30, 69 (1942); 28, 419 (1941).

S. Polyak, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).

R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 65 (1949).

G. Wald, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).

E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1947).

D. B. Judd, personal communication (1951).

L. C. Thompson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 505 (1949).

A. C. Kraus, Biol. Symp. 7, 23 (1942).

P. Karrer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 259 (1938).

F. D. Collins and R. A. Morton, Nature 167, 673 (1951).

H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 674 (1951).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 89 (1943).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill, Ltd. London, 1950).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Nature 154, 290 (1944).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).

W. D. Wright, Researches in Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

R. J. Lythgoe, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 321 (1938).

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 794 (1948).

A. Magitot, Traite d'Ophthalmol. 2, 484 (1939).

K. Tansley, Doc. Ophthalmol. 4, 116 (1950).

W. J. Schmidt, Protoplasma Monographien 11, 388 (1937).

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949), B. Thorell and F. Ruch, Nature 167, 815 (1951).

R. J. Lythgoe, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).

J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 26, 26 (1942).

B. O'Brien, this symposium (1951).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 210 (1951).

Broda, Goodeve, and Lythgoe, J. Physiol. 98, 397 (1940).

C. Wald, Colloid Chemistry (Alexander) (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1944), 5, 753.

G. Wald, Science 113, 474 (1951).

G. Wald, Science 113, 287 (1951).

L. E. R. Picken, Biol. Rev. 14, 146 (1940).

H. E. Roaf, Physiol. Rev. 13, 43 (1933).

V. O. Siven, Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 42, 224 (1908).

A. König, Gesamelte Abhandlung: Physiol. Optics (Johann Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Supp. 9, (1938).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 111, 17P (1949).

H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthmol. 3, 135 (1949).

E. L. M. Baumgardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 269 (1948).

H. A. Van der Velden, Ophthalmol. 111, 321 (1946).

See reference 19, p. 279.

A. F. Bliss, J. Gen. Physiol. 29, 277 (1946).

F. N. Willmer, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 194 (1939).

Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546 (1947).

M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947).

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942); M. H. Pirenne Nature 161, 724 (1947).

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

E. C. Chaffee and A. Hampson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1 (1924).

D. B. Judd, Handbook Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), Chapter 22.

S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

J. S. Preston, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 757 (1939).

A. Dresler, Das Licht 10, 79 (1940).

J. P. Bartz and F. O. Schmitt, Am. J. Physiol. 177, 280 (1936).

R. Granit, Doc. Ophthalmol. 1, 7 (1938).

C. B. Anfinson, J. Biol. Chem. 152, 267 (1944).

R. Dittler, Hb. d. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 270 (1929).

M. Schultze, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 215 (1867); 5, 1 (1869); 5, 379 (1869).

In humans, R. Greif, Graefe Saemische Hb. d. Augenheilkunde, 2nd Ed. 1, 1899 (1931).

W. Zenker, Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. 3, 248 (1867).

E. V. Dungern, Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 346 (1920).

F. O. Schmitt and R. S. Bear, Biol. Rev. 14, 27 (1939).

F. S. Sjöstrand, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1188 (1948).

L. E. Gilson, Chem. Abstracts 31, 1830 (1937).

A. N. Winchell, Optical Properties of Organic Compounds (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1943).

F. Weigert and J. W. Morton, Ophthalmol. 99, 145 (1940).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), A 216, 91 (1916).

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).

L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).

E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).

S. Hecht, Handbook Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

W. D. Wright and R. Granit, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. Suppl. 9, 80 (1938).

G. H. Bishop, Am. J. Physiol. 106, 460 (1933).

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).

A. Putter, Hb. d. Augenheilkunde II/1 2, 370 (1908).

W. E. L. Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205 (1942).

C. Brooks, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 401 (1948).

W. E. L. Clark and L. Chako, Nature 160, 123 (1947).

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

R. M. Hanes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 28 (1951).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer 33, 444 (1943).

C. G. Barnhard, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942).

Riggs, Berry, and Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 423 (1949).

H. Piper, Arch. Anat. Physiol. 122, 85 (1911).

R. Granit and R. Munsterhelm, J. Physiol. 88, 436 (1937).

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, unpublished expts. (1951).

R. Granit, Erg. d. Physiol. 46, 31 (1950).

R. Granit, Acta Physiol. Scand. 3, 137 (1941).

R. Granit, J. Physiol. 103, 103 (1944).

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

B. Gernandt, J. Neurophysiol. 10, 307 (1947).

R. Granit, J. Neurophys. 11, 253 (1948).

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

S. W. Kuffler, personal communication (1951).

D. P. C. Lloyd, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 184 (1941).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 54, 289 (1941).

H. K. Hartline, J. Comp. Cell. Physiol. 1, 277 (1932).

B. Gernandt, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 15, 88 (1948).

C. G. Bernhard, Acta. Physiol. Scand. 3, 301 (1942); J. Neurophysiol. 5, 32 (1942).

A. Kohlrausch, Hb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12/2, 1394 (1931).

L. Carmichael, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1948).

E. S. Lamar, et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

R. B. Morison and D. L. Bassett, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 309 (1945).

S. A. Talbot, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).

F. H. Lewy and G. D. Gammon, J. Neurophysiol. 3, 388 (1940).

J. R. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).

R. Cohn, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 31 (1948).

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 166 (1947).

J. Hecht and E. D. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 593 (1939).

G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 718 (1944).

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

G. C. Higgins and K. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 756 (1948).

W. Pitts, W. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).

S. E. Henschen, Acta Psychiat. Neurol. 6, 347 (1931).

G. Szekeres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 350 (1948).

J. Ten Doesschate, Ophthalmol. 112, 1 (1946).

C. E. Shannon, Bell System Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).

H. Jacobson, Science 113, 292 (1951).

A. V. Bedford, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. (1950).

A. V. Loughren and C. J. Hirsh, Electronics 24/2, 92 (1951).

D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).

K. Motokawa et al., Nature 167, 630 (1951).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

D. L. Macadam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).

L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 1 (1943).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1950).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 109, XP (1949).

E. N. Willmer, Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 2/2, 53 (1950).

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).

J. D. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).

J. Guild, "Discussion on Vision," Phys. Soc. (London), p. 85 (1932).

See reference 137, p. 13.

J. C. Maxwell, quoted by F. D. Richtmyer, Phys. Today 4, 11 (1951).

J. H. Woodger, Biological Principles (Routledge and Paul, London, 1929).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.