Abstract

<p>Since König, experiment has yielded 6 different sets of 3 “primary processes” for tricolor vision in the fovea. Their variation with test method, and conflict with other data, suggest only an indirect relation to the absorption curves of receptors. Blue and yellow in the retinal periphery, in the central fovea, and in transient effects, act as if coupled physiologically. Yellow proves independent of red and green, and blue has many characteristics of rod function.</p><p>To adjust the Helmholtz view of deficiency to modern observations, new mechanisms for white and hues are needed in the cortex. The Müller theory adds black and locates in the retina this inner zone; but likewise fails to assign it a physiological mechanism. Recent experiments confirm the retinal location of both yellow and black mechanisms; hence an opponents theory seems unavoidable. The psychophysical evidence calls for unsymmetric synaptic connections before the “primary processes,” and also after them to create hues and luminosity separately.</p>

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F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. 107, 187 (1948).

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

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R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

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L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8, 393 (1924).

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H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

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H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monog. # 183, 123 (1930).

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E. N. Willmer Science 153, 774 (1944).

E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).

E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1946).

E. N. Willmer, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 194 (1949).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1949).

Wolf, E.

W. J. Crozier and E. Wolf, J. Gen. Psych. 27, 513 (1944).

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W. D. Wright, Researches on Nornal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

W. D. Wright, Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 139.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B122, 106 (1937); 122, 220 (1937).

Other

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), Part 14: Vision.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. 1.

R. M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 579 (1943).

D. Katz, The World of Color (Trench, Traubner, London, 1935).

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).

E. N. Willmer, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 194 (1949).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Nornal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131 (1923).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 161 (1944).

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 243 (1931).

J. Guild, Discussion on Vision (Phys. Soc. Cambridge, 1932), p. 157.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 647 (1930).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

H. De Vries, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 121 (1946).

G. F. Göthlin, Am. J. Psych. 56, 537 (1943); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 147 (1944).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).

T. Smith and J. Guild, Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 5 (1932).

D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 36, 336 (1941).

D. L. Macadam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 294 (1937).

S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1943).

S. Polyak, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 477 (1936).

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1946).

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, Current Observations, unpublished (1951).

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8, 393 (1924).

G. Fry, Am. J. Psych. 45, 488 (1933).

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monog. # 183, 123 (1930).

See reference 31, p. 183.

J. Mandelbaum and L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 581 (1947). R. J. Lythgoe, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).

See reference 7, p. 81.

P. J. Bouma and G. Heller, Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. 38, 148 (1935).

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Opthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).

See reference 7, p. 96.

W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

A. König, Physiological Optics (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

G. Schubert, Arch. ges. Physiol. 220, 82 (1928).

See reference 7, p. 145.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1095 (1948).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).

See reference 7, p. 258.

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949), Figs. 2, 5.

See reference 45, Fig. 14.

See reference 45, p. 147.

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. 107, 187 (1948).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

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