Abstract

Experimental data are presented which provide psychophysical specifications of white in terms of the stimulus variables, color temperature, and luminance, for 10 different adaptive conditions. A single test field size, 11.7°, and a single exposure time, 1 second, were used. The color temperatures of the adapting and surround illuminations were: 10,000°K, 7500°K, 5500°K, 4300°K, and 2842°K; and the adapting luminance levels were 5 and 15 mL. The white threshold contours exhibit minima in all cases, and vary systematically with both the color temperature and luminance of adapting and surround field. These variations are analyzed and discussed in terms of chromatic desensitization. Various principles and mechanisms of color vision are discussed in relation to the psychophysical functions presented in the three papers of this series. It is suggested that the properties exhibited by these functions are most simply interpreted by postulating an independent white mechanism. A summary is presented of the three papers constituting the series.

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  1. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
  2. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 528 (1951).
  3. H. Helson, J. Explt. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).
  4. H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).
  5. I. G. Priest, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.), Sci. Papers, No. 417, 17, 231 (1921), pp. 247–249.
  6. H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).
  7. Detailed discussion of Hering's unifying interaction principle may be found in many of his visual papers. See, for example, E. Hering, Grūndzilge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag. Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920).
  8. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Explt. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
  9. See H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, 1924) third English edition, Vol. II, p. 235; see also Appendix by J. v. Kries, pp. 440–441.
  10. J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuck der Physiologie der Menschzen (Brunswick 3, 1905), p. 211.
  11. For a more recent investigation see W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 115B, 49 (1934).
  12. H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America), third English edition, Vol. II, p. 73.
  13. D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).
  14. G. E. Müller, Z. Psychol. 10, 1 (1896).
  15. D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), p. 143.
  16. W. D. Wright, Documenta Ophthalmologica. 3, 10 (1949).
  17. D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931), p. 288. See also reference 12, pp. 185 ff.
  18. C. S. Peirce, Am. J. Sci. and Arts. 13, 247 (1877).
  19. H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).
  20. S. Hecht, Howe Lab. Ophthal., Bull. No. 4, 1 (1931).
  21. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 75 and 110.
  22. G. Blet, Cahiers phys., No. 22, 57 (1944).
  23. D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931), p. 554.
  24. E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 2, 69 (1882).
  25. E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 6, 142 (1885).
  26. A. Brückner, Pflüigers Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 90 (1903).
  27. R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 67 (1928).
  28. H. Piéron, L'Année Psychol. 40, 52 (1939).
  29. F. Blottiau, Rev. optique (théor. instrum.) 26, 193 (1947).
  30. R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 647 (1950).
  31. E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III, 70, 169 (1875).
  32. E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-natur. klasse, Abt. III, 69, 179, (1874).
  33. L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).
  34. A. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 2, 550 (1929).
  35. H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. de l'assoc. frang. avance. des sci. 70, 265 (1943).
  36. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).
  37. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), pp. 316 ff.
  38. J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

Blet, G.

G. Blet, Cahiers phys., No. 22, 57 (1944).

Blottiau, F.

F. Blottiau, Rev. optique (théor. instrum.) 26, 193 (1947).

Brückner, A.

A. Brückner, Pflüigers Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 90 (1903).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), pp. 316 ff.

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Howe Lab. Ophthal., Bull. No. 4, 1 (1931).

Helson, H.

H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).

H. Helson, J. Explt. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III, 70, 169 (1875).

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-natur. klasse, Abt. III, 69, 179, (1874).

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 6, 142 (1885).

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 2, 69 (1882).

Detailed discussion of Hering's unifying interaction principle may be found in many of his visual papers. See, for example, E. Hering, Grūndzilge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag. Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920).

Hiecke, R.

R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 67 (1928).

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 528 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Explt. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Explt. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 528 (1951).

Michels, W. C.

H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).

Müller, G. E.

G. E. Müller, Z. Psychol. 10, 1 (1896).

Ornstein, L. S.

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

Peirce, C. S.

C. S. Peirce, Am. J. Sci. and Arts. 13, 247 (1877).

Piéron, H.

H. Piéron, L'Année Psychol. 40, 52 (1939).

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. de l'assoc. frang. avance. des sci. 70, 265 (1943).

Pretori, H.

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.), Sci. Papers, No. 417, 17, 231 (1921), pp. 247–249.

Purdy, D. M.

D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), p. 143.

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931), p. 554.

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931), p. 288. See also reference 12, pp. 185 ff.

Sachs, M.

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

Schouten, J. F.

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

Sinden, R. H.

R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 647 (1950).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

Tschermak, A.

A. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 2, 550 (1929).

v. Helmholtz, H.

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America), third English edition, Vol. II, p. 73.

See H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, 1924) third English edition, Vol. II, p. 235; see also Appendix by J. v. Kries, pp. 440–441.

v. Kries, J.

J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuck der Physiologie der Menschzen (Brunswick 3, 1905), p. 211.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 75 and 110.

For a more recent investigation see W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 115B, 49 (1934).

W. D. Wright, Documenta Ophthalmologica. 3, 10 (1949).

Other

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 528 (1951).

H. Helson, J. Explt. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

I. G. Priest, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.), Sci. Papers, No. 417, 17, 231 (1921), pp. 247–249.

H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).

Detailed discussion of Hering's unifying interaction principle may be found in many of his visual papers. See, for example, E. Hering, Grūndzilge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag. Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Explt. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

See H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, 1924) third English edition, Vol. II, p. 235; see also Appendix by J. v. Kries, pp. 440–441.

J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuck der Physiologie der Menschzen (Brunswick 3, 1905), p. 211.

For a more recent investigation see W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 115B, 49 (1934).

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America), third English edition, Vol. II, p. 73.

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

G. E. Müller, Z. Psychol. 10, 1 (1896).

D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), p. 143.

W. D. Wright, Documenta Ophthalmologica. 3, 10 (1949).

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931), p. 288. See also reference 12, pp. 185 ff.

C. S. Peirce, Am. J. Sci. and Arts. 13, 247 (1877).

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).

S. Hecht, Howe Lab. Ophthal., Bull. No. 4, 1 (1931).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 75 and 110.

G. Blet, Cahiers phys., No. 22, 57 (1944).

D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931), p. 554.

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 2, 69 (1882).

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss, N. F. 6, 142 (1885).

A. Brückner, Pflüigers Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 90 (1903).

R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 67 (1928).

H. Piéron, L'Année Psychol. 40, 52 (1939).

F. Blottiau, Rev. optique (théor. instrum.) 26, 193 (1947).

R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 647 (1950).

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III, 70, 169 (1875).

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-natur. klasse, Abt. III, 69, 179, (1874).

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

A. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 2, 550 (1929).

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. de l'assoc. frang. avance. des sci. 70, 265 (1943).

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), pp. 316 ff.

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).

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