Abstract

Color discrimination ellipsoids were obtained for several colors throughout the range of luminances, 10 to 0.03 ft-L. The ellipsoids were determined from three-color matches by two observers, using a colorimeter with a two-part circular field subtending an angle of two degrees, and a dark surrounding field. It was found that sensitivity to color differences remains constant for a normal observer until the field luminance drops below about one foot-lambert. Below this level, discrimination decreases rapidly and a normal observer appears tritanomalous. Sensitivity to luminance differences is essentially independent of chromaticity and decreases with luminance in the same manner as the data obtained from measurement of the Weber fraction with monochromatic or white fields.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93–112 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808–834 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. (Series 7) 37, 126–144 (1946).
  5. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589–595 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 18–26 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Hartridge, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 232B, 519–699 (1947).
  8. Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 833–841 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  9. Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).
  10. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 127B, 64–105 (1939).
    [Crossref]

1950 (2)

1949 (1)

1947 (1)

H. Hartridge, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 232B, 519–699 (1947).

1946 (1)

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. (Series 7) 37, 126–144 (1946).

1943 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 18–26 (1943).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

1941 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 127B, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Brown, W. R. J.

Farnsworth,

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 232B, 519–699 (1947).

Hecht,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Judd,

MacAdam, D. L.

Patt,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Peskin,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Plaza,

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. (Series 7) 37, 126–144 (1946).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 127B, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Phil. Mag. (Series 7) (1)

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. (Series 7) 37, 126–144 (1946).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93–112 (1941).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 127B, 64–105 (1939).
[Crossref]

H. Hartridge, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 232B, 519–699 (1947).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Constant-luminance cross section of discrimination ellipsoids for color No. 19a. Field luminance for each ellipse is given in foot-lamberts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constant-luminance cross section of discrimination ellipsoids for color No. 31a. Field luminance for each ellipse is given in foot-lamberts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Constant-luminance cross section of discrimination ellipsoids for color No. 34a. Field luminance for each ellipse is given in foot-lamberts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections at constant luminance of discrimination ellipsoids for WRJB. Luminance of field for each ellipse is given in foot-lamberts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross sections at constant luminance of discrimination ellipsoids for DLM. Luminance of field for each ellipse is given in foot-lamberts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional error of luminance derived from discrimination ellipsoids. Curves are from the formula of Hecht, Peskin, and Patt.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Standard deviations and correlations of instrument primaries.

Tables Icon

Table II Coefficients (×10−4) of discrimination in x, y, and l=0.2 logY.

Tables Icon

Table III Principal axes in section for Δl=0. Fractional error of luminance.

Equations (3)

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Δ s 2 = g 11 Δ x 2 + 2 g 12 Δ x · Δ y + g 22 Δ y 2 + 2 g 23 Δ y · k ( Δ Y / Y ) + g 33 k 2 ( Δ Y / Y ) 2 + 2 g 31 k ( Δ Y / Y ) · Δ x ,
R = 6.936 X - 2.173 Y - 0.8550 Z , G = - 4.832 X + 11.482 Y - 0.5971 Z , B = 0.5759 X - 1.369 Y + 12.343 Z .
σ Y / Y = 11.53 / ( g 33 ) 1 2 .