Abstract

A third branch of optics is shown to exist between geometrical and wave optics. This intermediate link is called parageometrical optics. Several principles of geometrical optics can be suitably extended to it.

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  1. A. Sommerfeld and J. Runge, Ann. d. Physik, 35, 277 (1911).
  2. M. Herzberger, Strahlenoptik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1931), p. 10.
  3. G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 2, 787 (1947).
  4. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 6, 24 (1949).
  5. M. Herzberger, Math. Rev. 9, 165 (1948).
  6. A. Rubinowicz, Ann. d. Physik 73, 339 (1924).
  7. W. Kossel, Zeits. f. Naturforsch. 3a, 496 (1948); 4a, 506 (1949).
  8. C. Carathéodory, Geometrische Optik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1937), p. 19.
  9. For geometrical optics the invariance of the right side of Eq. (9) was first demonstrated by R. Straubel, Physik. Zeits. 4, 114 (1902).
  10. M. von Laue, Ann. d. Physik 30, 225 (1909).
  11. G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 4, 319 (1948).
  12. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 573.

Carathéodory, C.

C. Carathéodory, Geometrische Optik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1937), p. 19.

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 6, 24 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 2, 787 (1947).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 4, 319 (1948).

Herzberger, M.

M. Herzberger, Strahlenoptik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1931), p. 10.

M. Herzberger, Math. Rev. 9, 165 (1948).

Kossel, W.

W. Kossel, Zeits. f. Naturforsch. 3a, 496 (1948); 4a, 506 (1949).

Rubinowicz, A.

A. Rubinowicz, Ann. d. Physik 73, 339 (1924).

Runge, J.

A. Sommerfeld and J. Runge, Ann. d. Physik, 35, 277 (1911).

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld and J. Runge, Ann. d. Physik, 35, 277 (1911).

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 573.

von Laue, M.

M. von Laue, Ann. d. Physik 30, 225 (1909).

Other (12)

A. Sommerfeld and J. Runge, Ann. d. Physik, 35, 277 (1911).

M. Herzberger, Strahlenoptik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1931), p. 10.

G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 2, 787 (1947).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 6, 24 (1949).

M. Herzberger, Math. Rev. 9, 165 (1948).

A. Rubinowicz, Ann. d. Physik 73, 339 (1924).

W. Kossel, Zeits. f. Naturforsch. 3a, 496 (1948); 4a, 506 (1949).

C. Carathéodory, Geometrische Optik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1937), p. 19.

For geometrical optics the invariance of the right side of Eq. (9) was first demonstrated by R. Straubel, Physik. Zeits. 4, 114 (1902).

M. von Laue, Ann. d. Physik 30, 225 (1909).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Rend. Acc. Naz. Linc. 4, 319 (1948).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 573.

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