Abstract

A comparison of the transmission-type electron microscope with the similar light microscope has to include considerations of the differences in the nature of the carrier of radiant energy and of the optical media used for building up the optical systems. Although electron optics is of relatively recent origin, fairly good agreement of the experimental limits with the theoretically expected ones has been obtained. After a discussion of existing discrepancies, proposals and attempts for improving the performance of the electron microscope are outlined.

© 1950 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin and et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62, 537 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).
  10. D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Private communication from T. E. Allibone and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

1949 (3)

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62, 537 (1949).
[CrossRef]

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).

1946 (1)

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Allibone, T. E.

Private communication from T. E. Allibone and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

Bernal, J. D.

J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62, 537 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Cosslett, V. E.

V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin and et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Haine, M. E.

Private communication from T. E. Allibone and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

Hall, C. E.

C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Lachenbruch, S. H.

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Marton, L.

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
[CrossRef]

L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).
[CrossRef]

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Ruska, E.

E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Scherzer, O.

O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).

Schiff, L. I.

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. D.

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
[CrossRef]

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
[CrossRef]

Archiv. f. Elektrotech. (1)

E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys. (5)

L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).
[CrossRef]

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
[CrossRef]

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62, 537 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Private communication from T. E. Allibone and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin and et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focal distances of a magnetic lens as a function of the energy of the electron beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instrument length vs. focal distance for different magnifications.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray diagram, (a) for high magnification image formation, (b) for diffraction experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Least resolved distance vs. wave-length for different numerical apertures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of shadow casting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pattern representing field distribution from single ferromagnetic domains (courtesy of J. App. Phys.).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Properties of the carriers of radiant energy.

Tables Icon

Table II Properties of optical media.