Abstract

A comparison of the transmission-type electron microscope with the similar light microscope has to include considerations of the differences in the nature of the carrier of radiant energy and of the optical media used for building up the optical systems. Although electron optics is of relatively recent origin, fairly good agreement of the experimental limits with the theoretically expected ones has been obtained. After a discussion of existing discrepancies, proposals and attempts for improving the performance of the electron microscope are outlined.

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  1. L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).
  2. V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.
  3. E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).
  4. L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).
  5. R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).
  6. C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).
  7. L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).
  8. J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62. 537 (1949).
  9. O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).
  10. D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
  11. Private communication from Dr. T. E. Allibone, and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

Allibone, T. E.

Private communication from Dr. T. E. Allibone, and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

Bernal, J. D.

J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62. 537 (1949).

Cosslett, V. E.

V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

Haine, M. E.

Private communication from Dr. T. E. Allibone, and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

Hall, C. E.

C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).

Lachenbruch, S. H.

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).

Marton, L.

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).

L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).

Ruska, E.

E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).

Scherzer, O.

O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).

Schiff, L. I.

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).

Williams, R. D.

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).

Other (11)

L. Marton and L. I. Schiff, J. App. Phys. 12, 759 (1941).

V. E. Cosslett, Electron Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1946); D. Gabor, The Electron Microscope (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1948); V. K. Zworykin et al., Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1945); L. Marton, Reports on Progress in Physics (The Physical Society, London, 1946), Vol. 10, p. 204.

E. Ruska, Archiv. f. Elektrotech. 38, 102 (1944).

L. Marton, J. App. Phys. 16, 131 (1945); J. B. Lepoole, Philips Tech. Rev. 9, No. 2 (1947); Haine, Page, and Garfitt, J. App. Phys. 21, 173 (1950).

R. D. Williams and R. W. G. Wyckoff, J. App. Phys. 17, 23 (1946); R. W. G. Wyckoff, Electron Microscopy (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949).

C. E. Hall, J. App. Phys. 19, 198, 271 (1948).

L. Marton and S. H. Lachenbruch, J. App. Phys. 20, 1171 (1949).

J. D. Bernal, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A62. 537 (1949).

O. Scherzer, Optik 2, 114 (1947).

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

Private communication from Dr. T. E. Allibone, and M. E. Haine, Assoc. Elec. Ind. Ltd., Res. Labs.

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