Abstract

The chromaticity confusions characteristic of tritanopia may be represented on the (x, y)-chromaticity diagram by a family of straight lines intersecting at a copunctal point near the shortwave extreme of the spectrum locus. A case of congenital tritanopia is reported that departs from typical tritanopia, first by having a luminosity function abnormally curtailed on the shortwave end, second by having chromaticity confusions among object colors describable by straight lines on the (x, y)-plot intersecting in an area surrounding the spectrum locus at 460 mμ instead of near the shortwave extreme, and third by confusing incandescent lamp light at a color temperature of 2900°K with the spectrum at 586 mμ instead of the typical tritanopic value of 579 mμ. It has been found that all three of these disagreements with typical tritanopia are to be expected from a tritanope possessing normal macular pigmentation combined with an ocular pigment five times normal. We believe, therefore, that this case of atypical tritanopia departs from typical tritanopia because of abnormally heavy ocular pigmentation.

© 1950 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes (Karger, Berlin, 1912).
  2. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 350 (1943).
  3. A. König, Ueber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen (Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, June, 1894), p. 577; also Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Leipzig, Barth, 1903), p. 338.
  4. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Farnsworth and J. D. Reed, Retention of discriminable hue of ten colors at small subtense, , Med. Res. Lab., U. S. N. Submarine Base, 20April1944.
  6. H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London (B) 232, 535 (1947); Nature 155, 391, 657 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 582 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. König, Ueber “Blaublindheit,” Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 718 (July8, 1897); also Gesammelte Abhandlungen, p. 396 (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).
  9. Commission international de l’Éclairage, Proceedings of the 8th Session, Cambridge, England, 19–29 (September, 1931). A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936). D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 33, 407 (1944); RP1618; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 19, Ergänzungsheft (1908).
  12. H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 234 (1907).
  13. H. Köllner, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 281 (1907).
  14. Collin and W. A. Nagel, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 74 (1907).
  15. H. Piper, Zeits. Psychol. 38, 153 (1905).
  16. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) 132, 101 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck, & Ruprecht, 1924), p. 51.
  18. D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 42, 1 (1949); RP1946.
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Alrutz, Psyke 10, 1, 130 (1915).
  20. E. Hering, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Hermann, Ein Beitrag zur Casuistik der Farbenblindheit, Inaug. Diss. (Dorpat, 1882).
  22. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Richardson, Psych. Bull. 8, 55 (1911).
  24. F. Richardson-Robertson, Amer. J. Psych. 34, 157 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. Uhry, Beitrag zur Casuistik der Blau-Gelbblindheit, Diss. (Strassburg, 1894).
  26. M. von Vintschgau, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 191 (1894).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthal. 21, 88 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  29. Dean Farnsworth, Manual of the Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).
  30. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (June29, 1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (July, 1938).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
    [Crossref]

1949 (2)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 42, 1 (1949); RP1946.
[Crossref]

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 582 (1949).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London (B) 232, 535 (1947); Nature 155, 391, 657 (1945).
[Crossref]

1945 (2)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (June29, 1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1944 (2)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 33, 407 (1944); RP1618; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
[Crossref]

1943 (5)

1938 (1)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (July, 1938).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

F. Richardson-Robertson, Amer. J. Psych. 34, 157 (1923).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

S. Alrutz, Psyke 10, 1, 130 (1915).

1911 (1)

F. Richardson, Psych. Bull. 8, 55 (1911).

1908 (1)

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 19, Ergänzungsheft (1908).

1907 (3)

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 234 (1907).

H. Köllner, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 281 (1907).

Collin and W. A. Nagel, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 74 (1907).

1905 (1)

H. Piper, Zeits. Psychol. 38, 153 (1905).

1897 (1)

A. König, Ueber “Blaublindheit,” Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 718 (July8, 1897); also Gesammelte Abhandlungen, p. 396 (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

1894 (2)

E. Hering, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

M. von Vintschgau, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 191 (1894).
[Crossref]

Alrutz, S.

S. Alrutz, Psyke 10, 1, 130 (1915).

Collin,

Collin and W. A. Nagel, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 74 (1907).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 350 (1943).

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. Farnsworth and J. D. Reed, Retention of discriminable hue of ten colors at small subtense, , Med. Res. Lab., U. S. N. Submarine Base, 20April1944.

Farnsworth, Dean

Dean Farnsworth, Manual of the Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).

Foss, C. E.

Göthlin, G. F.

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthal. 21, 88 (1943).
[Crossref]

Granville, W. C.

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London (B) 232, 535 (1947); Nature 155, 391, 657 (1945).
[Crossref]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

Hermann, G.

G. Hermann, Ein Beitrag zur Casuistik der Farbenblindheit, Inaug. Diss. (Dorpat, 1882).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 42, 1 (1949); RP1946.
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 33, 407 (1944); RP1618; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).
[Crossref]

Köllner, H.

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 19, Ergänzungsheft (1908).

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 234 (1907).

H. Köllner, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 281 (1907).

H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes (Karger, Berlin, 1912).

König, A.

A. König, Ueber “Blaublindheit,” Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 718 (July8, 1897); also Gesammelte Abhandlungen, p. 396 (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

A. König, Ueber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen (Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, June, 1894), p. 577; also Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Leipzig, Barth, 1903), p. 338.

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (July, 1938).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (July, 1938).
[Crossref]

Middleton, W. E. K.

Müller, G. E.

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck, & Ruprecht, 1924), p. 51.

Nagel, W. A.

Collin and W. A. Nagel, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 74 (1907).

Nickerson, D.

Piper, H.

H. Piper, Zeits. Psychol. 38, 153 (1905).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[Crossref]

Reed, J. D.

D. Farnsworth and J. D. Reed, Retention of discriminable hue of ten colors at small subtense, , Med. Res. Lab., U. S. N. Submarine Base, 20April1944.

Richardson, F.

F. Richardson, Psych. Bull. 8, 55 (1911).

Richardson-Robertson, F.

F. Richardson-Robertson, Amer. J. Psych. 34, 157 (1923).
[Crossref]

Uhry, E.

E. Uhry, Beitrag zur Casuistik der Blau-Gelbblindheit, Diss. (Strassburg, 1894).

von Vintschgau, M.

M. von Vintschgau, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 191 (1894).
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (June29, 1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[Crossref]

Acta Ophthal. (1)

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthal. 21, 88 (1943).
[Crossref]

Amer. J. Psych. (1)

F. Richardson-Robertson, Amer. J. Psych. 34, 157 (1923).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthal. (1)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (July, 1938).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. (2)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 33, 407 (1944); RP1618; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bureau of Stand. 42, 1 (1949); RP1946.
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[Crossref]

Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. (2)

E. Hering, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

M. von Vintschgau, Pflügers Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 57, 191 (1894).
[Crossref]

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London (B) (1)

H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London (B) 232, 535 (1947); Nature 155, 391, 657 (1945).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) (1)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) 132, 101 (1944).
[Crossref]

Psych. Bull. (1)

F. Richardson, Psych. Bull. 8, 55 (1911).

Psyke (1)

S. Alrutz, Psyke 10, 1, 130 (1915).

Science (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (June29, 1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1)

A. König, Ueber “Blaublindheit,” Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 718 (July8, 1897); also Gesammelte Abhandlungen, p. 396 (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

Zeits. f. Augenheilk. (2)

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 19, Ergänzungsheft (1908).

H. Köllner, Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 234 (1907).

Zeits. Psychol. (1)

H. Piper, Zeits. Psychol. 38, 153 (1905).

Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. (2)

H. Köllner, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 281 (1907).

Collin and W. A. Nagel, Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 74 (1907).

Other (8)

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck, & Ruprecht, 1924), p. 51.

Commission international de l’Éclairage, Proceedings of the 8th Session, Cambridge, England, 19–29 (September, 1931). A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936). D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
[Crossref]

H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes (Karger, Berlin, 1912).

D. Farnsworth and J. D. Reed, Retention of discriminable hue of ten colors at small subtense, , Med. Res. Lab., U. S. N. Submarine Base, 20April1944.

A. König, Ueber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen (Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, June, 1894), p. 577; also Gesammelte Abhandlungen (Leipzig, Barth, 1903), p. 338.

E. Uhry, Beitrag zur Casuistik der Blau-Gelbblindheit, Diss. (Strassburg, 1894).

G. Hermann, Ein Beitrag zur Casuistik der Farbenblindheit, Inaug. Diss. (Dorpat, 1882).

Dean Farnsworth, Manual of the Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticity confusions (dotted lines) of the classical tritanope on the (x, y)-chromaticity diagram (see reference 10). Note that the classical tritanope sees the spectrum at about 567 mμ as having the same chromaticity as standard source C (representative of average daylight), and that he sees the spectrum at about 579 mμ as having the same chromaticity as an incandescent lamp at a color temperature of 2900°K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Score made by Mr. V. on F-M 100-hue test, average of four trials, shown on the Farnsworth profile diagram. (See reference 28.) Mr. V’s ability to distinguish hues in the yellow to green and purple to blue ranges is about equal to that of the normal eye, but he cannot distinguish yellowish reds from purplish reds, nor greens from blues.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Division of the spectrum according to hue by the normal eye (violet, blue, green, yellow, red) compared to that by Mr. V’s tritanopic eye (green, red). The division points are subject to individual variation. Those for the normal eye are indicated here by approximate distribution curves derived from settings of 141 observers with normal color vision.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequence of colors found by Mr. V. on the dichotomous test (see reference 28). The normal eye sees these colors (various Munsell hues at value 5/, chroma /4) in serial order (0 to 15). The kinds of confusion made by the three types of dichromat and the corresponding anomalous trichromat are indicated by dotted lines (protan, deutan, tritan).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of Mr. V’s relative spectral luminosity function (solid curve) with that of the standard observer (dotted curve). Mr. V finds the brightest part of the equal-energy spectrum at about 580 mμ instead of the usual 555 mμ, and the spectrum seen by him is considerably cut off on the short-wave end compared to that seen by an observer with normal vision.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral transmittance of the ocular media (cornea, lens, humours) according to Ludvigh and McCarthy (see reference 31) (dots), and spectral internal transmittance of the macula lutea (circles) according to Wald. (See reference 30.) The curve shows the product of these two spectral transmittances and for the normal eye is our best estimate of the ratio of the radiant flux incident upon the fovea to that incident on the cornea so as to pass through the pupil from a source at the fixation point.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in chromaticity produced by various multiples of the normal macular and normal ocular pigmentation. The point (0, 0) corresponds to the chromaticity of standard source C viewed by a pigment-free but otherwise normal eye. The point (1, 1) corresponds to source C for the standard observer; the point A(1, 1) corresponds to source A for the standard observer. Note from the dotted straight line that the classical tritanope with normal macular pigment and 5 times normal ocular pigmentation would find an incandescent lamp at a color temperature of 2900°K to have the same chromaticity as the spectrum at 586 mμ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of increasing ocular pigmentation by a factor of 5. The chromaticities of certain of the Munsell papers (value 5/, chroma /5) illuminated by standard source C are shown on the (x, y)-chromaticity diagram both for direct observation by the standard observer (circles), and for observation through a filter having 4 times the yellowish pigmentation of the normal ocular media (dots). The straight lines coursing among these points are drawn so as to pass through the co-punctal point (x=0.165, y=0.000) of the classical tritanope. Note that interposition of the yellow filter causes different pairs of Munsell papers to be confused by the classical tritanope; for example, the pair 9PB-4GY is changed nearly to 9PB-10Y.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of Mr. V’s chromaticity matches (circles and dots) with those of the classical tritanope (dotted line) and with those of the classical tritanope having 5 times normal ocular pigmentation (solid line). Note that Mr. V’s 1943 observations (circles) correspond to the classical tritanope with about 5 times normal ocular pigmentation, and his 1945 observations correspond to about 6 times normal ocular pigmentation.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table II Relative spectral luminosities for atypical congenital tritanope.

Tables Icon

Table III Munsell chips found by atypical congenital tritanope to have identical chromaticities in daylight.

Tables Icon

Table IV Chromaticity coordinates of 18 of the Munsell 5/5 papers illuminated by standard illuminant C and viewed through an amber filter equivalent to 5 times the normal pigmentation of the refractive media of the eye (see Fig. 6).

Tables Icon

Table V Standard relative luminosity function, y ¯ λ , for equal-energy spectrum adjusted to accord with ocular pigmentation 6 times that found by Ludvigh and McCarthy for young normally pigmented eyes.