Abstract

<p>Experimental results concerning the behavior of the contrast threshold are given as obtained from about 100,000 responses of the same subject.</p><p>The circular test spot of size <i>d</i> between 6.6′ and 8° was projected 7° nasal from the fovea. Green light was used for background and test spot. The stimulus exposure <i>t</i> was varied between 0.02 and 1 second.</p><p>So long as <i>d</i> and <i>t</i> are small, the behavior of Δ<i>B</i>/<i>B</i> agrees with the explanation of de Vries: Δ<i>B</i>~<i>B</i>½. The dependence of the sensitivity of the eye on <i>B</i> is calculated from the precise shape of the curve for Δ<i>B</i> as a function of <i>B</i> for these combinations of <i>d</i> and <i>t</i>. The result does not contradict direct measurements of the sensitivity.</p><p>For combinations of <i>d</i> and <i>t</i> values in which <i>d</i> or <i>t</i> are large, deviations from quanta explanations similar to those published in previous papers on the absolute threshold (J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947)) are found.</p><p>It appeared that these deviations are due to the fact that Δ<i>B</i> can never decrease below a limiting value depending on <i>B</i>. In a region of the <i>B</i> values studied, this limit for Δ<i>B</i> is proportional to <i>B</i>, so that Δ<i>B</i>/<i>B</i> is constant for large <i>d</i> and <i>t</i> values in this region.</p><p>The duplicity of the retina becomes apparent in the curves representing the sensitivity of the eye as a function of <i>B</i> and in the behavior of the limiting value of Δ<i>B</i> mentioned.</p>

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  1. H. A. van der Velden, Physica 11, 179 (1944); Ophthalmologica 111, 321 (1946).
  2. J. M. Otero, L. Plaza, and F. Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949). M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 336 (1950).
  3. G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).
  4. H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, Nature 139, 409 (1937). S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. H. Pirenne, Science 93, 585 (1941). Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943). A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948). M. A. Bouman, Thesis, Utrecht, 1949; Soc. Ophthalm. 4, 23 (1950).
  5. J. M. W. Milatz and L. S. Ornstein, Physica 2, 355 (1935). J. M. W. Milatz and N. Bloembergen, ibid. 11, 449 (1946).
  6. L. S. Ornstein, D. Vermeulen, and E. F. M. van der Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 573 (1930). L. S. Ornstein, W. J. H. Moll, and H. C. Burger, Objective Spektralphotometrie (Sammlung Vieweg, 1932).
  7. M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).
  8. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
  9. E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).
  10. E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).
  11. C. D. Hendley, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 433 (1948).
  12. Hl. de Vries, Experientia 4, 205 (1948).
  13. H. A. van der Velden, Nederland Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949).
  14. S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 704. S. Hecht, J. Gen. Physiol. 18, 767 (1935).
  15. M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).
  16. J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1937).
  17. Hl. de Vries, J.O.S.A. 39, 201 (1949).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, Nature 139, 409 (1937). S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. H. Pirenne, Science 93, 585 (1941). Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943). A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948). M. A. Bouman, Thesis, Utrecht, 1949; Soc. Ophthalm. 4, 23 (1950).

de Vries, Hl.

Hl. de Vries, Experientia 4, 205 (1948).

Hl. de Vries, J.O.S.A. 39, 201 (1949).

Goodeve, C. F.

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, Nature 139, 409 (1937). S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. H. Pirenne, Science 93, 585 (1941). Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943). A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948). M. A. Bouman, Thesis, Utrecht, 1949; Soc. Ophthalm. 4, 23 (1950).

Griffin, D. R.

G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 704. S. Hecht, J. Gen. Physiol. 18, 767 (1935).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).

Hendley, C. D.

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

C. D. Hendley, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 433 (1948).

Lamar, E. S.

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).

Milatz, J. M. W.

J. M. W. Milatz and L. S. Ornstein, Physica 2, 355 (1935). J. M. W. Milatz and N. Bloembergen, ibid. 11, 449 (1946).

Ornstein, L. S.

J. M. W. Milatz and L. S. Ornstein, Physica 2, 355 (1935). J. M. W. Milatz and N. Bloembergen, ibid. 11, 449 (1946).

L. S. Ornstein, D. Vermeulen, and E. F. M. van der Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 573 (1930). L. S. Ornstein, W. J. H. Moll, and H. C. Burger, Objective Spektralphotometrie (Sammlung Vieweg, 1932).

Otero, J. M.

J. M. Otero, L. Plaza, and F. Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949). M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 336 (1950).

Plaza, L.

J. M. Otero, L. Plaza, and F. Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949). M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 336 (1950).

Salaverri, F.

J. M. Otero, L. Plaza, and F. Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949). M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 336 (1950).

Shlaer, S.

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

Steinhardt, J.

J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1937).

van der Held, E. F. M.

L. S. Ornstein, D. Vermeulen, and E. F. M. van der Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 573 (1930). L. S. Ornstein, W. J. H. Moll, and H. C. Burger, Objective Spektralphotometrie (Sammlung Vieweg, 1932).

van der Velden, H. A.

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).

H. A. van der Velden, Physica 11, 179 (1944); Ophthalmologica 111, 321 (1946).

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).

H. A. van der Velden, Nederland Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949).

Vermeulen, D.

L. S. Ornstein, D. Vermeulen, and E. F. M. van der Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 573 (1930). L. S. Ornstein, W. J. H. Moll, and H. C. Burger, Objective Spektralphotometrie (Sammlung Vieweg, 1932).

Wald, G.

G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).

Other (17)

H. A. van der Velden, Physica 11, 179 (1944); Ophthalmologica 111, 321 (1946).

J. M. Otero, L. Plaza, and F. Salaverri, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 167 (1949). M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 336 (1950).

G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, Nature 139, 409 (1937). S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. H. Pirenne, Science 93, 585 (1941). Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943). A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948). M. A. Bouman, Thesis, Utrecht, 1949; Soc. Ophthalm. 4, 23 (1950).

J. M. W. Milatz and L. S. Ornstein, Physica 2, 355 (1935). J. M. W. Milatz and N. Bloembergen, ibid. 11, 449 (1946).

L. S. Ornstein, D. Vermeulen, and E. F. M. van der Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 573 (1930). L. S. Ornstein, W. J. H. Moll, and H. C. Burger, Objective Spektralphotometrie (Sammlung Vieweg, 1932).

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947).

E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948).

C. D. Hendley, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 433 (1948).

Hl. de Vries, Experientia 4, 205 (1948).

H. A. van der Velden, Nederland Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949).

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 704. S. Hecht, J. Gen. Physiol. 18, 767 (1935).

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).

J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1937).

Hl. de Vries, J.O.S.A. 39, 201 (1949).

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