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  1. Cf. papers by Koenig and Brodhun (see Appendix II, this paper) and Webster’s International Dictionary, 1910 ed.
  2. Rose’s instrument could not, however, have been used by trichromatic observers as the leucoscope is, because he prescribes a fixed thickness of quartz of only 5 mm. (Archiv für path. Anat. 28, p. 36), whereas from about two to four times this thickness is necessary to make use of the leucoscope principle. (See Section1–2 below.)
  3. There appears to be some doubt and controversy as to the relative contributions of Kitao, and his master, Helmholtz, in the original design and naming of the instrument. (Cf. last section of Kitao’s second paper. For reference, see Appendix II.)
  4. See bibliography, Appendix II to this paper.
  5. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008; year 1882.
  6. “The carbon filament lamp was developed about the year 1878 …”— Solomon: “Electric Lamps,” p. 95; London, 1908.“In 1879, Swan exhibited a lamp with a filament of carbon in a vacuum bulb, and followed this by various improvements.”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 21, p. 715.“The Edison incandescent lamp was first exhibited in 1879 ….”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 7, p. 599.On the 20th of October, 1880, Joseph Wilson Swan gave at Newcastle the first public exhibition on a large scale of electric lighting by means of glow lamps—Enc. Brit. (11th Ed., 1911), Vol. 26, p. 179, under“Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson.”
  7. The author is indebted to his former associate, Mr. P. V. Wells, for having first directed his attention to the leucoscope. Mr. Wells happened to notice Koenig’s paper in the Annalen der Physik while searching the literature on another subject.
  8. Norris and Oliver: “System of Diseases of the Eye,” Vol. II (“Detection of Color Blindness,” Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: “Physiologic Optics,” Eng. trans. by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.
  9. For example, G. K. Burgess, Block, Hyde, H. E. Ives, L. A. Jones, P. D. Foote. Cf. also Appendix II to this paper.
  10. Cf. Appendix II.
  11. Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.
  12. For diagrams of design, consult any one of the following papers: Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 990; Koenig: Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20; Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 897.
  13. Cf. Appendix I and Figs. 13 and 14, this paper.
  14. In some cases the obvious modern interpretation of the conclusions of the original papers has been restated in modern terms.
  15. Brodhun: See Appendix II for reference.
  16. Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 29–31.
  17. Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 6 and 21.
  18. Zur Farbenlehre, p. 21,and Ab. Tok. Univ., 12, pp. 30–31.
  19. Rose and Koenig: Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk.,  8, pp. 375–377. Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.
  20. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008. Kitao: , pp. 34–58.
  21. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1001–1002.
  22. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1001.
  23. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.
  24. Koenig’s determination of visibility, the earliest that is now given any consideration, was not made until about 1890.
  25. Wien’s distribution law was published in 1896; Rayleigh’s, in 1900; Planck’s, in 1900. The scale of color temperature has been established only in very recent years by Hyde and others.
  26. I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .
  27. For further details, see also II below.
  28. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 999.
  29. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.
  30. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A.,  212, p. 287; year 1912–13.
  31. Only color temperatures between about 1700° and 2400° K are referable directly to Hyde’s scale as established by the Nela Research Laboratory. Light of spectral distribution corresponding to temperatures above 2400° K is obtained directly from gas-filled lamps and by rotatory dispersion as explained under II–2 below. Temperatures below 1700° K are from a small black body. See also II–2 below.
  32. Leo Arons. Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568; 1912.
    [CrossRef]
  33. It is now planned to have a new model instrument constructed in the Bureau of Standards instrument shop.
  34. This radiator was made of a sillimanite crucible within an outer crucible of alundum, the space between being filled with fused alumina. All sides except the aperture were heated electrically by a heater of platinum-rhodium wire. This furnace was cemented with alundum cement to give practically a one-piece furnace. It was supported on four porcelain legs about 15 cm long; and was freely exposed to the air. The dimensions were: inside diameter, 23 mm; inside length on line of sight, 30 mm; and aperture, 12 mm.
  35. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
    [CrossRef]
  36. Cf. Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  33, pp. 810–819, year 1910. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  10, pp. 208–212, year 1917;Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, year 1918;Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538–539, year 1920;and forthcoming papers“The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” …See also Appendix I, this paper.
    [CrossRef]
  37. Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
    [CrossRef]
  38. Bull. B. S.,  13, p. 363; year 1916.
  39. Letter and Report on Calibration, Nela Research Laboratory to Bureau of Standards, March8, 1920.
  40. Cf. also Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, p. 545.
  41. Cf. discussion of disadvantages of instrument under II above.
  42. , pp. 184–185.
  43. Similar calibrations for a number of observers of known visibility have just been completed with the same apparatus by C. M. Blackburn under the author’s direction. Time has not yet been available to reduce and fully study these data. They will be published later. In the meantime, we refrain from attempting to make any correlation between the personal equations of visibility and leucoscope reading.
  44. Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 21–29.
  45. LeChatelier and Boudouard: “High Temperature Measurements,” English translation by Burgess, New York1901, pages 158–160. Burgess and LeChatelier: “High Temperature Measurements,” page 348, New York, 1912.
  46. In the only Mesuré and Nouel instrument which the author has examined, the thickness of quartz is about 11 mm. This would be sufficient to use in leucoscopic observations; but is probably not the most favorable thickness (about 20 mm.).As a pyrometer, the leucoscope might with some reason be called the“duplex or double image sensitive tint pyrometer.”
  47. Loc. cit.
  48. Information to the author from Dr. P. D. Foote.
  49. The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
    [CrossRef]
  50. Centre of gravity or so-called“centre of area” of “luminosity curve” of the source.
  51. Phil. Trans. R. S., London, A, 212, pp. 288–289; year 1912–13.
  52. , pp. 184–185.
  53. Centre of gravity or so-called “centre of area ” of “ luminosity curve.”
  54. Cf. Priest: “Relation Between Quality of Color and Spectral Distribution,” Jour. Op. Soc. Am., Sept., 1920.
    [CrossRef]
  55. For computation of sin2(ϕ− 20 αλ) and cos2(ϕ− 20 αλ) see Appendix I.
  56. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.
  57. Cf. discussion of Fig. 15, in third paragraph following this.
  58. Trans. I. E. S., April, 1910, p. 193.
  59. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, Fig. 1.
  60. Letter Kimball to Priest, Oct.1, 1920.
  61. Smithsonian Physical Tables, 7th Ed. (year 1920). Table 549. p. 418.
  62. Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.
  63. Brodhun: Loc. cit., Appendix II, this paper.
  64. Computed from Lowry’s rotatory dispersion data, Phil. Trans., Roy. Soc., Lon. A.,  212, pp. 288–289.

1920 (1)

Cf. Priest: “Relation Between Quality of Color and Spectral Distribution,” Jour. Op. Soc. Am., Sept., 1920.
[CrossRef]

1919 (2)

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

Bull. B. S.,  13, p. 363; year 1916.

1912 (1)

Leo Arons. Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568; 1912.
[CrossRef]

1910 (2)

Cf. Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  33, pp. 810–819, year 1910. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  10, pp. 208–212, year 1917;Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, year 1918;Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538–539, year 1920;and forthcoming papers“The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” …See also Appendix I, this paper.
[CrossRef]

Trans. I. E. S., April, 1910, p. 193.

1883 (1)

Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.

1882 (1)

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008; year 1882.

Arons,

Cf. Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  33, pp. 810–819, year 1910. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  10, pp. 208–212, year 1917;Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, year 1918;Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538–539, year 1920;and forthcoming papers“The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” …See also Appendix I, this paper.
[CrossRef]

Cf. also Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, p. 545.

Arons, Leo

Leo Arons. Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568; 1912.
[CrossRef]

Boudouard,

LeChatelier and Boudouard: “High Temperature Measurements,” English translation by Burgess, New York1901, pages 158–160. Burgess and LeChatelier: “High Temperature Measurements,” page 348, New York, 1912.

Brodhun,

Cf. papers by Koenig and Brodhun (see Appendix II, this paper) and Webster’s International Dictionary, 1910 ed.

Brodhun: Loc. cit., Appendix II, this paper.

Cady,

Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Coblentz,

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

Emerson,

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

Foote, P. D.

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

Forsythe,

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
[CrossRef]

Haensch,

Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.

Hyde,

Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
[CrossRef]

Kimball,

Letter Kimball to Priest, Oct.1, 1920.

Kitao,

Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 29–31.

Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 6 and 21.

Koenig,

For diagrams of design, consult any one of the following papers: Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 990; Koenig: Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20; Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 897.

Rose and Koenig: Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk.,  8, pp. 375–377. Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008. Kitao: , pp. 34–58.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1001–1002.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.

Cf. papers by Koenig and Brodhun (see Appendix II, this paper) and Webster’s International Dictionary, 1910 ed.

The author is indebted to his former associate, Mr. P. V. Wells, for having first directed his attention to the leucoscope. Mr. Wells happened to notice Koenig’s paper in the Annalen der Physik while searching the literature on another subject.

LeChatelier,

LeChatelier and Boudouard: “High Temperature Measurements,” English translation by Burgess, New York1901, pages 158–160. Burgess and LeChatelier: “High Temperature Measurements,” page 348, New York, 1912.

Lowry’s,

Computed from Lowry’s rotatory dispersion data, Phil. Trans., Roy. Soc., Lon. A.,  212, pp. 288–289.

McNicholas, H. J.

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

Norris,

Norris and Oliver: “System of Diseases of the Eye,” Vol. II (“Detection of Color Blindness,” Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: “Physiologic Optics,” Eng. trans. by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.

Oliver,

Norris and Oliver: “System of Diseases of the Eye,” Vol. II (“Detection of Color Blindness,” Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: “Physiologic Optics,” Eng. trans. by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.

Priest,

Cf. Priest: “Relation Between Quality of Color and Spectral Distribution,” Jour. Op. Soc. Am., Sept., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, Fig. 1.

Letter Kimball to Priest, Oct.1, 1920.

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

Rose,

Rose and Koenig: Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk.,  8, pp. 375–377. Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.

Rose’s,

Rose’s instrument could not, however, have been used by trichromatic observers as the leucoscope is, because he prescribes a fixed thickness of quartz of only 5 mm. (Archiv für path. Anat. 28, p. 36), whereas from about two to four times this thickness is necessary to make use of the leucoscope principle. (See Section1–2 below.)

Schmidt,

Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.

Solomon,

“The carbon filament lamp was developed about the year 1878 …”— Solomon: “Electric Lamps,” p. 95; London, 1908.“In 1879, Swan exhibited a lamp with a filament of carbon in a vacuum bulb, and followed this by various improvements.”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 21, p. 715.“The Edison incandescent lamp was first exhibited in 1879 ….”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 7, p. 599.On the 20th of October, 1880, Joseph Wilson Swan gave at Newcastle the first public exhibition on a large scale of electric lighting by means of glow lamps—Enc. Brit. (11th Ed., 1911), Vol. 26, p. 179, under“Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson.”

Thompson, Wm.

Norris and Oliver: “System of Diseases of the Eye,” Vol. II (“Detection of Color Blindness,” Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: “Physiologic Optics,” Eng. trans. by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.

Ann. der Phy. (3)

Leo Arons. Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568; 1912.
[CrossRef]

Cf. Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  33, pp. 810–819, year 1910. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  10, pp. 208–212, year 1917;Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, year 1918;Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538–539, year 1920;and forthcoming papers“The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” …See also Appendix I, this paper.
[CrossRef]

Cf. also Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, p. 545.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem. (10)

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.

For diagrams of design, consult any one of the following papers: Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 990; Koenig: Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20; Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 897.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 999.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008; year 1882.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1003–1008. Kitao: , pp. 34–58.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, pp. 1001–1002.

Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1001.

Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  17, p. 1004.

Annalen der Physik (1)

The author is indebted to his former associate, Mr. P. V. Wells, for having first directed his attention to the leucoscope. Mr. Wells happened to notice Koenig’s paper in the Annalen der Physik while searching the literature on another subject.

Archiv für path. Anat. (1)

Rose’s instrument could not, however, have been used by trichromatic observers as the leucoscope is, because he prescribes a fixed thickness of quartz of only 5 mm. (Archiv für path. Anat. 28, p. 36), whereas from about two to four times this thickness is necessary to make use of the leucoscope principle. (See Section1–2 below.)

Bull. B. S. (1)

Bull. B. S.,  13, p. 363; year 1916.

Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk. (1)

Rose and Koenig: Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk.,  8, pp. 375–377. Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem.,  34, p. 918.

Jour. Frank. Inst. (1)

The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
[CrossRef]

Jour. Op. Soc. Am. (1)

Cf. Priest: “Relation Between Quality of Color and Spectral Distribution,” Jour. Op. Soc. Am., Sept., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. (1)

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A.,  212, p. 287; year 1912–13.

Phil. Trans., Roy. Soc., Lon. A. (1)

Computed from Lowry’s rotatory dispersion data, Phil. Trans., Roy. Soc., Lon. A.,  212, pp. 288–289.

Phy. Rev. (3)

Priest: Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, Fig. 1.

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Journ. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919., Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Cf. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2),  13, pp. 157–158, 1919;Phy. Rev. (2),  14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919;, Feb., 1920.
[CrossRef]

Trans. I. E. S. (1)

Trans. I. E. S., April, 1910, p. 193.

Zeit. für Instk. (1)

Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. für Instk.,  3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.

Other (38)

Cf. papers by Koenig and Brodhun (see Appendix II, this paper) and Webster’s International Dictionary, 1910 ed.

It is now planned to have a new model instrument constructed in the Bureau of Standards instrument shop.

This radiator was made of a sillimanite crucible within an outer crucible of alundum, the space between being filled with fused alumina. All sides except the aperture were heated electrically by a heater of platinum-rhodium wire. This furnace was cemented with alundum cement to give practically a one-piece furnace. It was supported on four porcelain legs about 15 cm long; and was freely exposed to the air. The dimensions were: inside diameter, 23 mm; inside length on line of sight, 30 mm; and aperture, 12 mm.

Only color temperatures between about 1700° and 2400° K are referable directly to Hyde’s scale as established by the Nela Research Laboratory. Light of spectral distribution corresponding to temperatures above 2400° K is obtained directly from gas-filled lamps and by rotatory dispersion as explained under II–2 below. Temperatures below 1700° K are from a small black body. See also II–2 below.

Cf. Appendix I and Figs. 13 and 14, this paper.

In some cases the obvious modern interpretation of the conclusions of the original papers has been restated in modern terms.

Brodhun: See Appendix II for reference.

Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 29–31.

Kitao: Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 6 and 21.

Zur Farbenlehre, p. 21,and Ab. Tok. Univ., 12, pp. 30–31.

There appears to be some doubt and controversy as to the relative contributions of Kitao, and his master, Helmholtz, in the original design and naming of the instrument. (Cf. last section of Kitao’s second paper. For reference, see Appendix II.)

See bibliography, Appendix II to this paper.

“The carbon filament lamp was developed about the year 1878 …”— Solomon: “Electric Lamps,” p. 95; London, 1908.“In 1879, Swan exhibited a lamp with a filament of carbon in a vacuum bulb, and followed this by various improvements.”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 21, p. 715.“The Edison incandescent lamp was first exhibited in 1879 ….”—New Int. Enc. (1918 Ed.), Vol. 7, p. 599.On the 20th of October, 1880, Joseph Wilson Swan gave at Newcastle the first public exhibition on a large scale of electric lighting by means of glow lamps—Enc. Brit. (11th Ed., 1911), Vol. 26, p. 179, under“Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson.”

Norris and Oliver: “System of Diseases of the Eye,” Vol. II (“Detection of Color Blindness,” Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: “Physiologic Optics,” Eng. trans. by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.

For example, G. K. Burgess, Block, Hyde, H. E. Ives, L. A. Jones, P. D. Foote. Cf. also Appendix II to this paper.

Cf. Appendix II.

Koenig’s determination of visibility, the earliest that is now given any consideration, was not made until about 1890.

Wien’s distribution law was published in 1896; Rayleigh’s, in 1900; Planck’s, in 1900. The scale of color temperature has been established only in very recent years by Hyde and others.

I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote, and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, .

For further details, see also II below.

Brodhun: Loc. cit., Appendix II, this paper.

Letter Kimball to Priest, Oct.1, 1920.

Smithsonian Physical Tables, 7th Ed. (year 1920). Table 549. p. 418.

Cf. discussion of Fig. 15, in third paragraph following this.

For computation of sin2(ϕ− 20 αλ) and cos2(ϕ− 20 αλ) see Appendix I.

Letter and Report on Calibration, Nela Research Laboratory to Bureau of Standards, March8, 1920.

Centre of gravity or so-called“centre of area” of “luminosity curve” of the source.

Phil. Trans. R. S., London, A, 212, pp. 288–289; year 1912–13.

, pp. 184–185.

Centre of gravity or so-called “centre of area ” of “ luminosity curve.”

Cf. discussion of disadvantages of instrument under II above.

, pp. 184–185.

Similar calibrations for a number of observers of known visibility have just been completed with the same apparatus by C. M. Blackburn under the author’s direction. Time has not yet been available to reduce and fully study these data. They will be published later. In the meantime, we refrain from attempting to make any correlation between the personal equations of visibility and leucoscope reading.

Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 21–29.

LeChatelier and Boudouard: “High Temperature Measurements,” English translation by Burgess, New York1901, pages 158–160. Burgess and LeChatelier: “High Temperature Measurements,” page 348, New York, 1912.

In the only Mesuré and Nouel instrument which the author has examined, the thickness of quartz is about 11 mm. This would be sufficient to use in leucoscopic observations; but is probably not the most favorable thickness (about 20 mm.).As a pyrometer, the leucoscope might with some reason be called the“duplex or double image sensitive tint pyrometer.”

Loc. cit.

Information to the author from Dr. P. D. Foote.

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F. 1
F. 1

LB—Lummer-Brodhun cube, removed in the present use of the instrument. A—Nicol prism, removed and replaced by W in the present use of the instrument. W—Wollaston prism, used in place of A and rotating with the divided circle T. (In this instrument W and A are mounted on a slide so that either may be brought into the axis of the instrument at will.) Q1–Q7—Quartz plates. In the present work, all of these plates except three of thicknesses respectively 8, 8 and 4 mm. were removed. P—Nicol prism in fixed position. QI–QIV—Quartz plates, not used as part of leucoscope, but one of them (1 mm.) used in connection with P and P′ to obtain light of spectral distribution corresponding to very high temperatures, as explained in the text. P″–P′—Nicol prisms. Rotation of P″ relative to P′ serves to vary absolute brilliance of both images.

F. 2
F. 2

Assembled apparatus.

F. 3
F. 3

Comparison of Spectral Energy Distributions of Complete Radiator at 6ooo° and 7000° K with Spectral Distributions Obtained by Method of Rotatory Dispersion.

F. 4
F. 4

Comparison of Spectral Energy Distributions of Complete Radiator with Spectral Distributions Obtained by Method of Rotatory Dispersion.

F. 8
F. 8

Relative Visibility of Radiant Power.

F. 9
F. 9

Spectral Distribution of Light from a Complete Radiator at Various Temperatures. Energy by Planck’s formula (c2 = 14350).

F. 10
F. 10

Relation of the Wave Length of Centre of Gravity of Spectral Distribution of Light to Temperature of the Source. Energy distribution by Planck’s formula (c2 = 14350).

F. 12
F. 12

Relation Between Leucoscope Reading and Spectral Distribution of Light from the Source for Three Observers. Solid circles: Foote. Crosses: McNicholas. Open circles: Priest.

F. 13
F. 13

Spectral Distributions of Light in Leucoscope Images for Temperature 2000° K. Energy by Planck’s formula (c2 = 14350).

F. 14
F. 14

Spectral Distribution of Light in Leucoscope Images for Temperature 3000° K.

F. 16
F. 16

Spectral Transmission by Rotatory Dispersion of Quartz

F. 17
F. 17

Relative Spectral Transmission of a One-millimeter Quartz plate between Nicol Prisms.

F. 18
F. 18

Spectral Transmission by Rotatory Dispersion of Quartz

F. 19
F. 19

Spectral Transmission by Rotatory Dispersion of Quartz

F. 20
F. 20

Spectral Transmission by Rotatory Dispersion of Quartz

F. 21
F. 21

Spectral Transmission by Rotatory Dispersion of Quartz

F. 22
F. 22

Relative Spectral Transmission of a Twenty-millimeter Quartz Plate between Nicol Prisms.

Tables (2)

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Table I Constancy of Lencoscopic Readings with Time

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Table II Constancy of Leucoscopic Readings with Time

Equations (3)

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( Planck’s Function ) λ ( Visibility ) λ sin 2 ( ϕ 20 α λ )
( Planck’s Function ) λ ( Visibility ) λ cos 2 ( ϕ 20 α λ ) .
sin 2 ( ϕ b α λ )