Abstract

This paper presents a preliminary study of combining the Schwarzschild pair of mirrors with lenses of fused quartz and fluorite to obtain an ultraviolet microscope objective. It is found that the catadioptric Schwarzschild objective is superior to the catadioptric Newtonian objectives described in Paper I.

An objective using spherical surfaces and corrected from 220 mμ into the near infra-red is described. The obscuring ratio of this objective is 7 percent in area at NA 1.1.

© 1949 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Schwarzschild, Theorie der Spiegelteleskop (Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zü Göttingen Math-Phys Classe N.F. iv, 2, 1905).
  2. This is the type of objective used by Brumberg and apprently computed by Gershgorin after suggestions by Maksutov; E. M. Brumberg, Nature (London) 152, 357 (1943),D. D. Maksutov, U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 40859 (1932).The Gershgorin-Maksutov objective does not appear to be truly a catadioptric modification.A weak lens is inserted between the convex mirror and the long conjugate focus. The function of this lens is to correct chromatic aberration caused by the cover slip rather than to provide an essential modification of the Schwarzschild mirrors. No detailed account of this design has been found.
    [Crossref]
  3. C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 41–49 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Clark Jones, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 16, 1947–171 (1945).
  5. Experimental evaluation of the effect of obscuration has been reported by T. Dunham, , American Cancer Society Grant No. PH-1B (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) (1948). The general conclusions of Dr. Dunham’s report are in harmony with the theoretical treatment presented in this paper.
  6. Mr. Stone is at present with the Bradford-Durfee Technical Institute, Fall River, Massachusetts.

1947 (1)

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 41–49 (1947).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

R. Clark Jones, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 16, 1947–171 (1945).

1943 (1)

This is the type of objective used by Brumberg and apprently computed by Gershgorin after suggestions by Maksutov; E. M. Brumberg, Nature (London) 152, 357 (1943),D. D. Maksutov, U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 40859 (1932).The Gershgorin-Maksutov objective does not appear to be truly a catadioptric modification.A weak lens is inserted between the convex mirror and the long conjugate focus. The function of this lens is to correct chromatic aberration caused by the cover slip rather than to provide an essential modification of the Schwarzschild mirrors. No detailed account of this design has been found.
[Crossref]

Brumberg, E. M.

This is the type of objective used by Brumberg and apprently computed by Gershgorin after suggestions by Maksutov; E. M. Brumberg, Nature (London) 152, 357 (1943),D. D. Maksutov, U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 40859 (1932).The Gershgorin-Maksutov objective does not appear to be truly a catadioptric modification.A weak lens is inserted between the convex mirror and the long conjugate focus. The function of this lens is to correct chromatic aberration caused by the cover slip rather than to provide an essential modification of the Schwarzschild mirrors. No detailed account of this design has been found.
[Crossref]

Burch, C. R.

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 41–49 (1947).
[Crossref]

Dunham, T.

Experimental evaluation of the effect of obscuration has been reported by T. Dunham, , American Cancer Society Grant No. PH-1B (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) (1948). The general conclusions of Dr. Dunham’s report are in harmony with the theoretical treatment presented in this paper.

Jones, R. Clark

R. Clark Jones, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 16, 1947–171 (1945).

Schwarzschild, K.

K. Schwarzschild, Theorie der Spiegelteleskop (Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zü Göttingen Math-Phys Classe N.F. iv, 2, 1905).

J. Acous. Soc. Am. (1)

R. Clark Jones, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 16, 1947–171 (1945).

Nature (London) (1)

This is the type of objective used by Brumberg and apprently computed by Gershgorin after suggestions by Maksutov; E. M. Brumberg, Nature (London) 152, 357 (1943),D. D. Maksutov, U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 40859 (1932).The Gershgorin-Maksutov objective does not appear to be truly a catadioptric modification.A weak lens is inserted between the convex mirror and the long conjugate focus. The function of this lens is to correct chromatic aberration caused by the cover slip rather than to provide an essential modification of the Schwarzschild mirrors. No detailed account of this design has been found.
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 41–49 (1947).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Experimental evaluation of the effect of obscuration has been reported by T. Dunham, , American Cancer Society Grant No. PH-1B (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) (1948). The general conclusions of Dr. Dunham’s report are in harmony with the theoretical treatment presented in this paper.

Mr. Stone is at present with the Bradford-Durfee Technical Institute, Fall River, Massachusetts.

K. Schwarzschild, Theorie der Spiegelteleskop (Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zü Göttingen Math-Phys Classe N.F. iv, 2, 1905).

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Figures (4)

F. 1
F. 1

Schwarzschild mirrors combined with fluorite lenses to form a microscope objective corrected from 220 mμ into the near infra-red region. The NA is 1.1 and the obscuring ratio is 7 percent in area. The knowledge acquired in computing this objective led to the series of microscope objectives which will be described in subsequent papers of this series. Construction data for this objective are given in Table I.

F. 2
F. 2

Three possible locations for lens elements in the catadioptric Schwarzschild objective are shown in this diagram. The freedom of location illustrated here gives rise to many simplifications in computing the objective. The lens elements perform distinctly different functions, depending on which location they are given.

F. 3
F. 3

The objective of Fig. 1 is shown here combined with its projection “eyepiece.” The eyepiece corrects astigmatism residual in the objective.

F. 4
F. 4

The effect on diffraction of obscuring a central portion of the aperture is shown here. The abscissa is radial distance R from the center of the diffraction pattern. The ordinate is integrated intensity within the ring R to RR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Construction data for the objective shown in Fig. 1.