Abstract

Earlier attempts of various investigators to increase the sensitivity of photographic emulsions by addition of colloidal silver, silver sulfide, or gold are reviewed. Koslowsky’s discovery of the effect of certain gold complex salts as powerful sensitizers is described and a possible mechanism of the effect discussed. The importance of this effect for the manufacture of modern high speed and fine grain film as well as special x-ray emulsions is indicated.

© 1949 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 380 (1925).
  2. W. Jenisch, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 24, 248 (1926).
  3. B. H. Carrol and D. Hubbard, J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 1, 565–88 (1928).
  4. H. Weiss, Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie. 54, 3051 (1906).
  5. R. Koslowsky and H. Mueller, Agfa Film Plant, Wolfen, Germany. Reports September–October1936. Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 8, p. 873. PB 70053, fr. 831–50.
  6. H. Keller, Ger. P. Appl.114,185 (2/17/43).Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 10, p. 158. PB 84,987 fr. 8366–7.
  7. Waller, Collins, and Dodd, United States Patent2,399,083 (4/23/46).
  8. T. H. James and et al., P.S.A. J. 14, 349–53 (1948).
  9. F. Dersch and H. Dürr, S.M.P.E. XXVIII, 178–86 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Formstecher, Phot. Ind.874–5 (1921).
  11. J. M. Eder, Handbuch d. Photographie (1928), Vol.  IV, I, pp. 42–63.
  12. O. Erbacher, Zeits. f. Electrochemie 38, 534 (1932).
  13. T. H. James, J. Coll. Science 3, 447 (1948).
    [Crossref]

1948 (2)

T. H. James and et al., P.S.A. J. 14, 349–53 (1948).

T. H. James, J. Coll. Science 3, 447 (1948).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

F. Dersch and H. Dürr, S.M.P.E. XXVIII, 178–86 (1937).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

O. Erbacher, Zeits. f. Electrochemie 38, 534 (1932).

1928 (2)

J. M. Eder, Handbuch d. Photographie (1928), Vol.  IV, I, pp. 42–63.

B. H. Carrol and D. Hubbard, J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 1, 565–88 (1928).

1926 (1)

W. Jenisch, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 24, 248 (1926).

1925 (1)

S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 380 (1925).

1921 (1)

F. Formstecher, Phot. Ind.874–5 (1921).

1906 (1)

H. Weiss, Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie. 54, 3051 (1906).

Carrol, B. H.

B. H. Carrol and D. Hubbard, J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 1, 565–88 (1928).

Collins,

Waller, Collins, and Dodd, United States Patent2,399,083 (4/23/46).

Dersch, F.

F. Dersch and H. Dürr, S.M.P.E. XXVIII, 178–86 (1937).
[Crossref]

Dodd,

Waller, Collins, and Dodd, United States Patent2,399,083 (4/23/46).

Dürr, H.

F. Dersch and H. Dürr, S.M.P.E. XXVIII, 178–86 (1937).
[Crossref]

Eder, J. M.

J. M. Eder, Handbuch d. Photographie (1928), Vol.  IV, I, pp. 42–63.

Erbacher, O.

O. Erbacher, Zeits. f. Electrochemie 38, 534 (1932).

Formstecher, F.

F. Formstecher, Phot. Ind.874–5 (1921).

Hubbard, D.

B. H. Carrol and D. Hubbard, J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 1, 565–88 (1928).

James, T. H.

T. H. James and et al., P.S.A. J. 14, 349–53 (1948).

T. H. James, J. Coll. Science 3, 447 (1948).
[Crossref]

Jenisch, W.

W. Jenisch, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 24, 248 (1926).

Keller, H.

H. Keller, Ger. P. Appl.114,185 (2/17/43).Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 10, p. 158. PB 84,987 fr. 8366–7.

Koslowsky, R.

R. Koslowsky and H. Mueller, Agfa Film Plant, Wolfen, Germany. Reports September–October1936. Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 8, p. 873. PB 70053, fr. 831–50.

Mueller, H.

R. Koslowsky and H. Mueller, Agfa Film Plant, Wolfen, Germany. Reports September–October1936. Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 8, p. 873. PB 70053, fr. 831–50.

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 380 (1925).

Waller,

Waller, Collins, and Dodd, United States Patent2,399,083 (4/23/46).

Weiss, H.

H. Weiss, Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie. 54, 3051 (1906).

Handbuch d. Photographie (1)

J. M. Eder, Handbuch d. Photographie (1928), Vol.  IV, I, pp. 42–63.

J. Coll. Science (1)

T. H. James, J. Coll. Science 3, 447 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. (1)

B. H. Carrol and D. Hubbard, J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 1, 565–88 (1928).

P.S.A. J. (1)

T. H. James and et al., P.S.A. J. 14, 349–53 (1948).

Phot. Ind. (1)

F. Formstecher, Phot. Ind.874–5 (1921).

Phot. J. (1)

S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 380 (1925).

S.M.P.E. (1)

F. Dersch and H. Dürr, S.M.P.E. XXVIII, 178–86 (1937).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Electrochemie (1)

O. Erbacher, Zeits. f. Electrochemie 38, 534 (1932).

Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie. (1)

H. Weiss, Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie. 54, 3051 (1906).

Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. (1)

W. Jenisch, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 24, 248 (1926).

Other (3)

R. Koslowsky and H. Mueller, Agfa Film Plant, Wolfen, Germany. Reports September–October1936. Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 8, p. 873. PB 70053, fr. 831–50.

H. Keller, Ger. P. Appl.114,185 (2/17/43).Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports (U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington), Vol. 10, p. 158. PB 84,987 fr. 8366–7.

Waller, Collins, and Dodd, United States Patent2,399,083 (4/23/46).

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Figures (3)

F. 1
F. 1

Typical portrait emulsion (Ansco).

F. 2
F. 2

Low speed, fine-grain emulsion (Ansco).

F. 3
F. 3

Non-screen emulsion (65 kv) (Ansco).

Equations (1)

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Ag + M e A g + Me ( noble metal ion ) .