Abstract

In this first paper of several on the design and production of diffraction gratings of high resolving power, an outline is given of the development and present status of mechanically controlled ruling engines. Gratings having notable performance are described, and problems involved in producing on a reflecting surface large numbers of parallel equidistant grooves of constant or controlled form, with position tolerances of one micro-inch or better, are analyzed. Distinctive features of the engines of Rowland, Michelson, Gale, Anderson, Babcock, Siegbahn, and others are discussed. It is pointed out that the low productivity of many ruling engines in the past should not discourage present-day experimenters, as improved surfaces for ruling, superior ruling tools, alloys less susceptible to wear, warpage, creep, and fatigue, better methods of lubrication, and servo-mechanisms capable or making a ruling engine self-correcting, are all now available. Much can be learned by studying the strong points and weaknesses of previous engine designs. A current trend in the use of gratings appears to be away from the concave and toward the plane form. Succeeding papers will deal with a suggested method for obtaining improved gratings having high resolving power, and with the modification and testing of a 14-inch ruling engine, originally designed and partially built at the University of Chicago by Gale and O’Donnell, and recently transferred to M.I.T.

© 1949 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret.See John Mayall, J. Soc. Arts, May8, 1885.
  4. The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him.SeeC. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879),and A. M. Meyer, Appleton’s American Cyclopedia, “Spectrum,”  15 (1876).
  5. H A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902);Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882);Nature 26, 211 (1882);Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Michelson, Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).
  7. A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915);Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916);Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook’s Dictionary of Applied Physics, “The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings,” p. 30;also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).
  10. Harold D. Babcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 1 (1944)and personal communications.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930);Kosmos 8, 186 (1930);M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935);M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).
  13. H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917);W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934);J. Sci. Inst. 14, 8 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934);ibid. 14, 309 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  15. To quote Michelson: “When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure⋯. One comes to regard the machine as having a personality⋯ requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!” Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).
  16. John Strong, Phys. Rev. 43, 498 (1933);Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.
  18. H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893);Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893);See reference 5, p. 525;C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901);ibid. 16, 257 (1903);W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922);Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429;J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434.Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902);ibid. 12, 585 (1906);ibid. 14, 477 (1907);ibid. 20, 770 (1910);ibid. 23, 310 (1912):A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 509 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).
  25. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924);George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902), p. 691.
  28. Article “Screw,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., Vol. 21;See reference 5, p. 506.
  29. A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).
  31. John Strong, ONR Report, Nov.11, 1948.
  32. The first Hopkins grating on Al went to the Dominion Observatory in 1935;see Reference 63.
  33. E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909);T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924);J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  36. George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.
  37. Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.
  38. H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902);ibid. 6, 559 (1903).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
    [CrossRef]
  40. H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
  42. D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).
  43. W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).
  44. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).
  45. Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874);ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.
  46. A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882).Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described.See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895);ibid. 41, 813 (1914);J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890);K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916);W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  47. K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. für Instr’knde22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.
  48. A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.
    [CrossRef]
  49. A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.
    [CrossRef]
  50. A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.
    [CrossRef]
  51. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.
    [CrossRef]
  52. R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905);Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.
    [CrossRef]
  53. A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
    [CrossRef]
  54. F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.
  55. A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.
    [CrossRef]
  56. W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.
  57. L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.
  58. R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.
  59. E. Buchwald, Ann. d. Physik.80, 279 (1926). Ghosts arising from aperiodic errors.
    [CrossRef]
  60. J. E. Rosenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 87 (1930). Theoretical treatment of groove form.
    [CrossRef]
  61. C. H. Cartwright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 785 (1931). Experiments with Jaminary grating production.
    [CrossRef]
  62. P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.
  63. R. W. Ditchburn, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad.44A, 123 (1938). Effects of omitting certain grooves.
  64. R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.
    [CrossRef]
  65. C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.
  66. R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937);ibid. 147, 750 (1941);Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.
    [CrossRef]
  67. R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946). Calculation of energy distribution with Rowland’s formulas.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.
    [CrossRef]
  69. John Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 320 (1949). Improvement of echelettes.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

1947 (1)

G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.
[CrossRef]

1946 (3)

1944 (2)

1939 (1)

H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1938 (2)

R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

1937 (3)

R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937);ibid. 147, 750 (1941);Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.
[CrossRef]

W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).

H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934);ibid. 14, 309 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 43, 498 (1933);Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1932 (2)

T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).
[CrossRef]

P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.

1931 (1)

1930 (3)

J. E. Rosenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 87 (1930). Theoretical treatment of groove form.
[CrossRef]

M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930);Kosmos 8, 186 (1930);M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935);M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.
[CrossRef]

M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).

1926 (2)

L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

1924 (3)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924);George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.

1917 (1)

H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917);W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934);J. Sci. Inst. 14, 8 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1916 (2)

A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.
[CrossRef]

1915 (1)

A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915);Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916);Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.
[CrossRef]

1914 (1)

F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.

1912 (4)

A. A. Michelson, Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).

To quote Michelson: “When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure⋯. One comes to regard the machine as having a personality⋯ requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!” Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

1911 (2)

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
[CrossRef]

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
[CrossRef]

1910 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909);T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924);J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.
[CrossRef]

1906 (1)

A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.
[CrossRef]

1905 (1)

R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905);Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.
[CrossRef]

1903 (2)

A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.
[CrossRef]

A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.
[CrossRef]

1902 (2)

H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902);ibid. 6, 559 (1903).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902);ibid. 12, 585 (1906);ibid. 14, 477 (1907);ibid. 20, 770 (1910);ibid. 23, 310 (1912):A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).
[CrossRef]

1901 (1)

T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901);ibid. 16, 257 (1903);W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922);Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429;J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434.Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.
[CrossRef]

1893 (1)

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893);Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893);See reference 5, p. 525;C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
[CrossRef]

1885 (1)

Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret.See John Mayall, J. Soc. Arts, May8, 1885.

1882 (1)

A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882).Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described.See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895);ibid. 41, 813 (1914);J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890);K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916);W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).
[CrossRef]

1879 (1)

The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him.SeeC. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879),and A. M. Meyer, Appleton’s American Cyclopedia, “Spectrum,”  15 (1876).

1874 (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874);ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.

1823 (1)

J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).
[CrossRef]

Allen, H. S.

H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902);ibid. 6, 559 (1903).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. A.

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
[CrossRef]

Anderspn, J. A.

J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook’s Dictionary of Applied Physics, “The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings,” p. 30;also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).

Babcock, Harold D.

Beals, C. S.

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

Biske, F.

F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.

Buchwald, E.

E. Buchwald, Ann. d. Physik.80, 279 (1926). Ghosts arising from aperiodic errors.
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, C. H.

Conn, G. K. T.

G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.
[CrossRef]

Cope, T. D.

T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Crandall, I. B.

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
[CrossRef]

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad.44A, 123 (1938). Effects of omitting certain grooves.

Fraunhofer, J.

J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).
[CrossRef]

Gale, H. G.

H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Gehrke, E.

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909);T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924);J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, L. C.

L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.

Grayson, H. J.

H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917);W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934);J. Sci. Inst. 14, 8 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, George R.

George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.

Holmes, W. M.

W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.

Kinder, W.

W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).

King, A. S.

A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, P.

P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.

Leithaüser, G.

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909);T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924);J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Lyman, T.

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901);ibid. 16, 257 (1903);W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922);Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429;J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434.Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.
[CrossRef]

Mallock, A.

A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882).Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described.See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895);ibid. 41, 813 (1914);J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890);K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916);W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Mayall, John

Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret.See John Mayall, J. Soc. Arts, May8, 1885.

McKellar, A.

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

Meyer, C. F.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

Michelson,

To quote Michelson: “When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure⋯. One comes to regard the machine as having a personality⋯ requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!” Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915);Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916);Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.
[CrossRef]

Peirce, C.

The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him.SeeC. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879),and A. M. Meyer, Appleton’s American Cyclopedia, “Spectrum,”  15 (1876).

Porter, A. B.

A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.
[CrossRef]

Randall, H. M.

H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874);ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.

Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.

Richardson, D.

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

Rosenthal, J. E.

Rowland, H A.

H A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902);Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882);Nature 26, 211 (1882);Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, H. A.

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893);Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893);See reference 5, p. 525;C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
[CrossRef]

Scoble, W. A.

W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).

Siegbahn, M.

M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).

M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930);Kosmos 8, 186 (1930);M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935);M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, C. M.

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, R. F.

Stöckl, K.

K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. für Instr’knde22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.

Stone, W.

W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934);ibid. 14, 309 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Strong, John

John Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 320 (1949). Improvement of echelettes.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 43, 498 (1933);Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

John Strong, ONR Report, Nov.11, 1948.

Tackaberry, R. B.

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

Trowbridge, A.

A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.
[CrossRef]

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
[CrossRef]

Whalen, J. J.

Williams, R. C.

R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 509 (1944).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937);ibid. 147, 750 (1941);Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924);George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905);Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902);ibid. 12, 585 (1906);ibid. 14, 477 (1907);ibid. 20, 770 (1910);ibid. 23, 310 (1912):A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Math. (1)

The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him.SeeC. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879),and A. M. Meyer, Appleton’s American Cyclopedia, “Spectrum,”  15 (1876).

Ann. d. Physik (1)

J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (5)

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).
[CrossRef]

A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905);Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.
[CrossRef]

Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. (1)

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909);T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924);J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. (1)

W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).

Comptes Rendus (1)

P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.

Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne (1)

W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.

J. App. Phys. (1)

H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Frank. Inst. (1)

A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada (1)

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

J. Sci. Inst. (2)

W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934);ibid. 14, 309 (1937).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Arts (1)

Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret.See John Mayall, J. Soc. Arts, May8, 1885.

Kosmos (1)

M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).

Nature (5)

A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

To quote Michelson: “When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure⋯. One comes to regard the machine as having a personality⋯ requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!” Nature,  362 (January11, 1912).

R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937);ibid. 147, 750 (1941);Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (11)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902);ibid. 12, 585 (1906);ibid. 14, 477 (1907);ibid. 20, 770 (1910);ibid. 23, 310 (1912):A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893);Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893);See reference 5, p. 525;C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902);ibid. 6, 559 (1903).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924);George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874);ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.

A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.
[CrossRef]

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

Phys. Rev. (3)

A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.
[CrossRef]

T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901);ibid. 16, 257 (1903);W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922);Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429;J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434.Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.
[CrossRef]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 43, 498 (1933);Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Physik. Zeits. (1)

F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.

Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. (1)

G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria (1)

H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917);W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934);J. Sci. Inst. 14, 8 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science (1)

A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882).Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described.See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895);ibid. 41, 813 (1914);J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890);K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916);W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Univ. Chicago Mag. (1)

A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915);Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915);J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916);Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.
[CrossRef]

Zeiss. Nachtrichten (1)

W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).

Zeits. f. Physik (1)

M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930);Kosmos 8, 186 (1930);M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935);M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.
[CrossRef]

Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. (1)

L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.

Other (13)

E. Buchwald, Ann. d. Physik.80, 279 (1926). Ghosts arising from aperiodic errors.
[CrossRef]

K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. für Instr’knde22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

John Strong, ONR Report, Nov.11, 1948.

The first Hopkins grating on Al went to the Dominion Observatory in 1935;see Reference 63.

George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.

Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.

Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902), p. 691.

Article “Screw,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., Vol. 21;See reference 5, p. 506.

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.

J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook’s Dictionary of Applied Physics, “The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings,” p. 30;also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).

H A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902);Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882);Nature 26, 211 (1882);Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ditchburn, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad.44A, 123 (1938). Effects of omitting certain grooves.

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Figures (9)

F. 1
F. 1

H. A. Rowland with one of his ruling engines at Johns Hopkins University.

F. 2
F. 2

Michelson’s first ruling engine at the University of Chicago.

F. 3
F. 3

A view of Babcock’s ruling engine at the Mt. Wilson Observatory laboratory in Pasadena.

F. 4
F. 4

Siegbahn’s ruling engine at the Nobel Institute in Stockholm.

F. 5
F. 5

Typical thrust-bearings for ruling engine screws: (a) A diamond or ruby plate P on the end of the screw bears against a spherical steel surface, as used by Rowland and by Anderson; (b) An adjustable steel end-plate bears against a sapphire ball S, as used by Siegbahn; (c) Screw of zero pitch, as suggested by W. Stone; (d) Self-aligning thrust bearing with low stress concentration, designed by Henry Kurtz and used under oil in the Bausch & Lomb and M.I.T. engines. P, steel or ruby plate; G, Graphitar plate.

F. 6
F. 6

Diagrammatic presentation of single and double ways. For a given amount of wear in one pair of ways the lateral motion of point D, above the ruling tool, is cut in half in (a) but nearly doubled in (b).

F. 7
F. 7

Monorail construction for ruling carriage as used at M.I.T. Transverse motion of the sliders is reduced 100-fold at the ruling tool D, whose lateral position is controlled by the optical flat F through the boxwood shoe S, I and F form an interferometer for detecting lateral motion.

F. 8
F. 8

Mounting of the ruling diamond to give adjustment in three planes.

F. 9
F. 9

Typical moiré pattern produced by cross-ruling a small area with an engine having a multiply-periodic error such as to produce Rowland ghosts having intensities about 10 percent of their parent lines in the first order. The amplitude of the periodic error is about 5 micro-inches.