Abstract

The spherical aberration of the eye was measured by placing a series of centered annular apertures over the eye pupil, and determining the optimum spectacle correction for each aperture. A “double star” was used as a test object. Accommodation was controlled by reflecting a second test object into the field of view. The three eyes examined had positive (undercorrected) spherical aberration when unaccommodated; in one case 2 diopters at the pupil margin. The aberration was reduced with increasing accommodation and in one case became negative at high accommodation. Homatropine reduced the spherical aberration of two of the three eyes examined. A historical review of previous work is given.

© 1949 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Young, Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).
  2. A. W. Volkmann, Wagner’s Handworterbuch der Physiologie (Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1846), p. 293.
  3. H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), pp. 199–201.
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    [Crossref]
  5. E. Jackson, Trans. Am. Ophth. Soc. 5, 141 (1888).
  6. M. Tscherning, Optique Physiologique (Carre et Naud, Paris, 1898), pp. 98 and 158.
  7. A. Gullstrand, Supplement to Helmholtz’s Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), p. 437.
  8. A. Ames and C. A. Proctor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 22 (1921).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. T. Pi, Trans. Ophth. Soc. of United Kingdom XLV, 393 (1925).
  10. G. H. Stine, Am. J. Ophth. 13, Ser. 3, 101 (1930).
  11. J. M. Otero and A. Duran, Anales de Física y Química 38, 236 (1942).
  12. G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 590 (1944).
  13. G. Von Bahr, Acta Ophth. 23, 1 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Ivanoff, Rev. d’Optique 26, 145 (1947).
  15. A. Ivanoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 730 (1947).
    [Crossref]

1947 (2)

A. Ivanoff, Rev. d’Optique 26, 145 (1947).

A. Ivanoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 730 (1947).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

G. Von Bahr, Acta Ophth. 23, 1 (1945).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 590 (1944).

1942 (1)

J. M. Otero and A. Duran, Anales de Física y Química 38, 236 (1942).

1930 (1)

G. H. Stine, Am. J. Ophth. 13, Ser. 3, 101 (1930).

1925 (1)

H. T. Pi, Trans. Ophth. Soc. of United Kingdom XLV, 393 (1925).

1921 (1)

1888 (1)

E. Jackson, Trans. Am. Ophth. Soc. 5, 141 (1888).

1885 (1)

E. Jackson, American J. Med. Sciences 89, 404 (1885).
[Crossref]

1801 (1)

T. Young, Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Ames, A.

Byram, G. M.

G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 590 (1944).

Duran, A.

J. M. Otero and A. Duran, Anales de Física y Química 38, 236 (1942).

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, Supplement to Helmholtz’s Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), p. 437.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Rev. d’Optique 26, 145 (1947).

A. Ivanoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 730 (1947).
[Crossref]

Jackson, E.

E. Jackson, Trans. Am. Ophth. Soc. 5, 141 (1888).

E. Jackson, American J. Med. Sciences 89, 404 (1885).
[Crossref]

Otero, J. M.

J. M. Otero and A. Duran, Anales de Física y Química 38, 236 (1942).

Pi, H. T.

H. T. Pi, Trans. Ophth. Soc. of United Kingdom XLV, 393 (1925).

Proctor, C. A.

Stine, G. H.

G. H. Stine, Am. J. Ophth. 13, Ser. 3, 101 (1930).

Tscherning, M.

M. Tscherning, Optique Physiologique (Carre et Naud, Paris, 1898), pp. 98 and 158.

Volkmann, A. W.

A. W. Volkmann, Wagner’s Handworterbuch der Physiologie (Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1846), p. 293.

Von Bahr, G.

G. Von Bahr, Acta Ophth. 23, 1 (1945).
[Crossref]

von Helmholtz, H.

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), pp. 199–201.

Young, T.

T. Young, Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Acta Ophth. (1)

G. Von Bahr, Acta Ophth. 23, 1 (1945).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophth. (1)

G. H. Stine, Am. J. Ophth. 13, Ser. 3, 101 (1930).

American J. Med. Sciences (1)

E. Jackson, American J. Med. Sciences 89, 404 (1885).
[Crossref]

Anales de Física y Química (1)

J. M. Otero and A. Duran, Anales de Física y Química 38, 236 (1942).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Phil. Trans. (1)

T. Young, Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Rev. d’Optique (1)

A. Ivanoff, Rev. d’Optique 26, 145 (1947).

Trans. Am. Ophth. Soc. (1)

E. Jackson, Trans. Am. Ophth. Soc. 5, 141 (1888).

Trans. Ophth. Soc. of United Kingdom XLV (1)

H. T. Pi, Trans. Ophth. Soc. of United Kingdom XLV, 393 (1925).

Other (4)

M. Tscherning, Optique Physiologique (Carre et Naud, Paris, 1898), pp. 98 and 158.

A. Gullstrand, Supplement to Helmholtz’s Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), p. 437.

A. W. Volkmann, Wagner’s Handworterbuch der Physiologie (Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1846), p. 293.

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, 1909 edition; translated by J. P. C. Southall (Opt. Soc. Am., 1924), pp. 199–201.

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Figures (7)

F. 1
F. 1

Apparatus for measurement of the spherical aberration of the eye.

F. 2
F. 2

Annular pupils for measurement of the spherical aberration of the eye. Dimensions are in mm. The mean diameter is given above each annulus.

F. 3
F. 3

Spherical aberration curves of the right eye of subject M.K. (emmetrope).

F. 4
F. 4

Spherical aberration curves of the right eye of subject R.T. (myope, −4.25 D prescribed correction).

F. 5
F. 5

Spherical aberration curves of the right eye of subject R.S. (emmetrope).

F. 6
F. 6

The spherical aberration of the homotropinized eye compared to that of the normal unaccommodated eye.

F. 7
F. 7

The spherical aberration of the eye 7 1 2 ° nasal from the fovea, compared with the aberration at the fovea.