Abstract

<p>One hundred and twenty men (86 color-normal and 34 color-deficient) were tested with 5 pseudoisochromatic tests of color vision: the American Optical Company, Ishihara, Meyrowitz, Boström, and Boström-Kugelberg tests. Each of the men was also examined with a Bausch and Lomb visual spectrophotometer to determine his limit of visibility in the long wave-length (red) end of the spectrum. Twelve of the color deficient subjects had reduced sensitivity to long wave-length radiation, 19 had normal sensitivity to long wave-length radiation, and 3 subjects could not be assigned to either group with certainty.</p><p>Diagnostic plates in three of the tests, the Boström, Meyrowitz, and Ishihara, were evaluated in terms of their ability to differentiate the two kinds of color deficient individuals. The Boström plates were found to be worthless for this purpose, the Meyrowitz plates somewhat better, and the Ishihara plates best. None of the plates in the other two tests was found to be diagnostic.</p>

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  1. A. Chapanis, "A comparative study of five tests of color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).
  2. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).
  3. D. B. Judd, "Facts of color-blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).
  4. A. Chapanis, "The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues," J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).
  5. E. Murray, "Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique," Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).
  6. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  7. E. Murray, "Color vision tests," pp. 275–282 in Glasser, O. (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).
  8. LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
  9. W. R. Miles, "Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors," Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).
  10. D. B. Judd, "Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision," J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).
  11. L. S. Rowland, "Selection of a battery of color vision tests," AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, Report No. 1. (Feb. 19, 1943.)

1948 (2)

E. Murray, "Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique," Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).

A. Chapanis, "A comparative study of five tests of color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).

1947 (2)

A. Chapanis, "The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues," J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).

1944 (1)

D. B. Judd, "Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision," J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).

1943 (2)

W. R. Miles, "Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors," Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

D. B. Judd, "Facts of color-blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).

1936 (1)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, "A comparative study of five tests of color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).

A. Chapanis, "The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues," J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

Hardy, LeG. H.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, "Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision," J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).

D. B. Judd, "Facts of color-blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, "Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors," Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

Murray, E.

E. Murray, "Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique," Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).

E. Murray, "Color vision tests," pp. 275–282 in Glasser, O. (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).

Rand, G.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).

Rittler, M. C.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).

Rowland, L. S.

L. S. Rowland, "Selection of a battery of color vision tests," AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, Report No. 1. (Feb. 19, 1943.)

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

Am. J. Psych. (1)

E. Murray, "Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique," Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).

J. Gen. Physiol. (2)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

A. Chapanis, "The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues," J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

J. Gen. Psych. (1)

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, "The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision," J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. (1)

D. B. Judd, "Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision," J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).

Yale J. Biol. Med. (1)

W. R. Miles, "Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors," Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

Other (3)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

E. Murray, "Color vision tests," pp. 275–282 in Glasser, O. (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).

L. S. Rowland, "Selection of a battery of color vision tests," AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, Report No. 1. (Feb. 19, 1943.)

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