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  1. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4–23 (1935); C. H. Evans and E. Hirschlaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 164–167 (1939).
  2. Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817–831 (1934).
  3. C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 214–218 (1942).
  4. J. Eggert and M. Biltz, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 892–901 (1938); Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 140–155 (1940); J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 155–165, 165–174 (1940); Arens, Eggert, and Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 42, 33–42 (1943).
  5. C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 118–127 (1940).
  6. W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 168A, 168–175 (1938).
  7. Berg, Marriage, and Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 385–394 (1941).
  8. G. W. W. Stevens, Phot. J. 82, 42–47 (1942).
  9. Keller, Maetzig, and Möglich [Ann. d. Physik (6)1, 301–316 (1947), p. 311] are of the opinion that there is not an external and an internal latent image but that there are only two kinds of development: a chemical and a physical one. Their experimental results do not seem to support this opinion sufficiently.
  10. It should be mentioned, however, that L. Falla [Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 11, 196–199 (1942)] finds much higher redsensitivity for the deep internal image than for the surface image.
  11. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316–323 (1933); M. Biltz and J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 561–569 (1948).
  12. W. Meidinger and H. Mucha, Physik. Zeits. 40, 239–240 (1939).
  13. K. Fajans, Radioelements and Isotopes. Chemical Forces and Optical Properties of Substances (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1931).
  14. B. Barshchevskii, Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. 65, 25–28 (1949).
  15. F. C. Toy and H. A. Edgerton, Phil. Mag. (6)48, 947–961 (1924).
  16. J. Eggert and W. Noddack, Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik.-math. Kl. 116–122 (1923); Zeits. f. Physik 20, 299–314 (1923); 21, 264 (1924); 31, 922–941 (1925); 34, 918–920 (1925).
  17. F. Weigert, Zeits. f. Physik 18, 232–237 (1923); 34, 907–917 (1925).
  18. Ostwald, Luther, and Drucker, Hand- und Hilfsbuch zur Ausfiihrung physikochemischer Messungen (Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft, Leipzig, 1925), fourth edition, pp. 734–735.
  19. B. H. Carroll (private communication).
  20. J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), Phil. Mag. (4)41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871).
  21. P. Compan, Comptes Rendus 128, 1226–1229 (1899).
  22. R. Clausius, Poggendorff’s Ann. d. Physik 72, 294 (1847): 76, 161, 188 (1849); 121, 1 (1864). Quoted from Wo. Ostwald, Licht unci Farbe in Kolloiden (Theodor Steinkopff Verlag., Dresden and Leipzig, 1924), pp. 11, 80.
  23. E. Gretener, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 38, 248–286 (1939).
  24. A complete theory of light-scattering as a function of particle size is given by J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), pp. 563–573. See also reference 25.
  25. D. Sinclair and V. K. LaMer, Chem. Rev. 44, 245–267 (1949).
  26. O. Stasiw and J. Teltow, Göttingen, Nachrichten, Math.-physik. Kl 93–99, 100–109, 110–118 (1941); 156–163 (1944); Zeits. f, wiss. Phot. 40, 157–165 (1941),
  27. J. Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Physik (4)4, 796–810 (1901).
  28. J. Koenigsberger and K. Kilchling, Ann. d. Physik (4)28, 889–924 (1909).
  29. F. C. Toy and G. B. Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 127A, 613–628 (1930), p. 626.
  30. O. Masaki, Memoirs College of Science, Kyoto Imp. Univ. 12A, 127–134 (1929); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)1, 231–237 (1930).
  31. O. D. Barteneva and Yu. N. Gorokhovski, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 14, 193–198 (1944).
  32. R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420–431 (1947); R. Sherr, Rev. Sci. Inst. 18, 767–770 (1947). This has not been tested for the internal image at very short exposure times.
  33. L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305–319 (1923); J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157–169 (1933).
  34. B. O’Brien, Phys. Rev. 50, 400–401 (1936).
  35. J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 189, 1–9 (1941).
  36. H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 16, 54–59 (1947); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 305–306 (1948); H. Tellez-Plasencia, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 45–56 (1948).
  37. J. R. Haynes, in Preparation and Characteristics of Solid Luminescent Materials (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), Symposium held at Cornell University, October 24–26, 1946, pp. 430–431; J. R. Haynes and W. Shockley, in Report of a Conference on Strength of Solids, held at H. H. Wills Physical Laboratory, University of Bristol, July 7–9, 1947 (The Physical Society, London, 1948), pp. 151–157.
  38. K. E. Zimens, Arkiv f. Kemi, Min. Geol. 23A, No. 16, 1–21 (1947).
  39. To explain experimental results obtained by exposing latent images, formed at - 185°C, simultaneously to actinic and bleaching (infra-red) radiation at the same low temperature, W. F. Berg [Trans. Faraday Soc. 35, 445–458 (1939)3 assumed that under those conditions electrons may be trapped in two ways: either in shallow and numerous traps, or in deep and relatively fewer traps. He further assumed that the shallow traps exist in the silver halide and the deep traps in the sensitivity nuclei. From the present experiments, it seems to follow that this concept is not restricted to the latent-image formation at low temperature, although in commercial (chemically sensitized) emulsions exposed at room temperature and developed in commercial (substantially surface) developers the significance of the shallow traps is small.
  40. M. Bodenstein, Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl. No. 19, 1–32 (1941).
  41. J. W. Mitchell, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 361–369 (1948); Phil. Mag. (7)40, 249–268, 667–669 (1949).
  42. See, for example, the review by H. Socher, in Stenger-Staude, Vol. 3 [Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, (1944)1 pp. 113–139.
  43. V. S. Anastasevich and Ya. T. Frenkel, J. Exper. Theor. Phys. U.S.S.R. 11, 127–132 (1941).
  44. W. Lehfeldt, Zeits. f. Physik 85, 717–726 (1933).
  45. C. Tubandt, Zeits. f. anorg. Chemie 115, 105–126 (1921).
  46. G. Glaser, Ann. d. Physik (5)27, 217–232 (1936).

Anastasevich, V. S.

V. S. Anastasevich and Ya. T. Frenkel, J. Exper. Theor. Phys. U.S.S.R. 11, 127–132 (1941).

Barshchevskii, B.

B. Barshchevskii, Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. 65, 25–28 (1949).

Barteneva, O. D.

O. D. Barteneva and Yu. N. Gorokhovski, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 14, 193–198 (1944).

Berg, W. F.

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 168A, 168–175 (1938).

Biltz, M.

J. Eggert and M. Biltz, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 892–901 (1938); Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 140–155 (1940); J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 155–165, 165–174 (1940); Arens, Eggert, and Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 42, 33–42 (1943).

Bodenstein, M.

M. Bodenstein, Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl. No. 19, 1–32 (1941).

Carroll, B. H.

B. H. Carroll (private communication).

Clausius, R.

R. Clausius, Poggendorff’s Ann. d. Physik 72, 294 (1847): 76, 161, 188 (1849); 121, 1 (1864). Quoted from Wo. Ostwald, Licht unci Farbe in Kolloiden (Theodor Steinkopff Verlag., Dresden and Leipzig, 1924), pp. 11, 80.

Compan, P.

P. Compan, Comptes Rendus 128, 1226–1229 (1899).

Edgerton, H. A.

F. C. Toy and H. A. Edgerton, Phil. Mag. (6)48, 947–961 (1924).

Eggert, J.

J. Eggert and W. Noddack, Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik.-math. Kl. 116–122 (1923); Zeits. f. Physik 20, 299–314 (1923); 21, 264 (1924); 31, 922–941 (1925); 34, 918–920 (1925).

J. Eggert and M. Biltz, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 892–901 (1938); Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 140–155 (1940); J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 155–165, 165–174 (1940); Arens, Eggert, and Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 42, 33–42 (1943).

J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 189, 1–9 (1941).

Engstrom, R. W.

R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420–431 (1947); R. Sherr, Rev. Sci. Inst. 18, 767–770 (1947). This has not been tested for the internal image at very short exposure times.

Evans, C. H.

C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 214–218 (1942).

C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 118–127 (1940).

Fajans, K.

K. Fajans, Radioelements and Isotopes. Chemical Forces and Optical Properties of Substances (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1931).

Falla, L.

It should be mentioned, however, that L. Falla [Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 11, 196–199 (1942)] finds much higher redsensitivity for the deep internal image than for the surface image.

Frenkel, Ya. T.

V. S. Anastasevich and Ya. T. Frenkel, J. Exper. Theor. Phys. U.S.S.R. 11, 127–132 (1941).

Glaser, G.

G. Glaser, Ann. d. Physik (5)27, 217–232 (1936).

Gorokhovski, Yu. N.

O. D. Barteneva and Yu. N. Gorokhovski, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 14, 193–198 (1944).

Gretener, E.

E. Gretener, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 38, 248–286 (1939).

Harrison, G. B.

F. C. Toy and G. B. Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 127A, 613–628 (1930), p. 626.

Haynes, J. R.

J. R. Haynes, in Preparation and Characteristics of Solid Luminescent Materials (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), Symposium held at Cornell University, October 24–26, 1946, pp. 430–431; J. R. Haynes and W. Shockley, in Report of a Conference on Strength of Solids, held at H. H. Wills Physical Laboratory, University of Bristol, July 7–9, 1947 (The Physical Society, London, 1948), pp. 151–157.

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305–319 (1923); J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157–169 (1933).

Kilchling, K.

J. Koenigsberger and K. Kilchling, Ann. d. Physik (4)28, 889–924 (1909).

Kleinschrod, F. G.

J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 189, 1–9 (1941).

Koenigsberger, J.

J. Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Physik (4)4, 796–810 (1901).

J. Koenigsberger and K. Kilchling, Ann. d. Physik (4)28, 889–924 (1909).

LaMer, V. K.

D. Sinclair and V. K. LaMer, Chem. Rev. 44, 245–267 (1949).

Lehfeldt, W.

W. Lehfeldt, Zeits. f. Physik 85, 717–726 (1933).

Masaki, O.

O. Masaki, Memoirs College of Science, Kyoto Imp. Univ. 12A, 127–134 (1929); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)1, 231–237 (1930).

Meidinger, W.

W. Meidinger and H. Mucha, Physik. Zeits. 40, 239–240 (1939).

Mendelssohn, K.

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 168A, 168–175 (1938).

Mitchell, J. W.

J. W. Mitchell, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 361–369 (1948); Phil. Mag. (7)40, 249–268, 667–669 (1949).

Mucha, H.

W. Meidinger and H. Mucha, Physik. Zeits. 40, 239–240 (1939).

Noddack, W.

J. Eggert and W. Noddack, Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik.-math. Kl. 116–122 (1923); Zeits. f. Physik 20, 299–314 (1923); 21, 264 (1924); 31, 922–941 (1925); 34, 918–920 (1925).

O’Brien, B.

B. O’Brien, Phys. Rev. 50, 400–401 (1936).

Sauvenier, H.

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 16, 54–59 (1947); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 305–306 (1948); H. Tellez-Plasencia, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 45–56 (1948).

Sinclair, D.

D. Sinclair and V. K. LaMer, Chem. Rev. 44, 245–267 (1949).

Socher, H.

See, for example, the review by H. Socher, in Stenger-Staude, Vol. 3 [Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, (1944)1 pp. 113–139.

Stasiw, O.

O. Stasiw and J. Teltow, Göttingen, Nachrichten, Math.-physik. Kl 93–99, 100–109, 110–118 (1941); 156–163 (1944); Zeits. f, wiss. Phot. 40, 157–165 (1941),

Stevens, G. W. W.

G. W. W. Stevens, Phot. J. 82, 42–47 (1942).

Stratton, J. A.

A complete theory of light-scattering as a function of particle size is given by J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), pp. 563–573. See also reference 25.

Strutt, J. W.

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), Phil. Mag. (4)41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871).

Teltow, J.

O. Stasiw and J. Teltow, Göttingen, Nachrichten, Math.-physik. Kl 93–99, 100–109, 110–118 (1941); 156–163 (1944); Zeits. f, wiss. Phot. 40, 157–165 (1941),

Toy, F. C.

F. C. Toy and H. A. Edgerton, Phil. Mag. (6)48, 947–961 (1924).

F. C. Toy and G. B. Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 127A, 613–628 (1930), p. 626.

Tubandt, C.

C. Tubandt, Zeits. f. anorg. Chemie 115, 105–126 (1921).

Webb, J. H.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316–323 (1933); M. Biltz and J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 561–569 (1948).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4–23 (1935); C. H. Evans and E. Hirschlaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 164–167 (1939).

Weigert, F.

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. Physik 18, 232–237 (1923); 34, 907–917 (1925).

Zimens, K. E.

K. E. Zimens, Arkiv f. Kemi, Min. Geol. 23A, No. 16, 1–21 (1947).

Other (46)

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4–23 (1935); C. H. Evans and E. Hirschlaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 164–167 (1939).

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817–831 (1934).

C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 214–218 (1942).

J. Eggert and M. Biltz, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 892–901 (1938); Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 140–155 (1940); J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 39, 155–165, 165–174 (1940); Arens, Eggert, and Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 42, 33–42 (1943).

C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 118–127 (1940).

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 168A, 168–175 (1938).

Berg, Marriage, and Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 385–394 (1941).

G. W. W. Stevens, Phot. J. 82, 42–47 (1942).

Keller, Maetzig, and Möglich [Ann. d. Physik (6)1, 301–316 (1947), p. 311] are of the opinion that there is not an external and an internal latent image but that there are only two kinds of development: a chemical and a physical one. Their experimental results do not seem to support this opinion sufficiently.

It should be mentioned, however, that L. Falla [Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 11, 196–199 (1942)] finds much higher redsensitivity for the deep internal image than for the surface image.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316–323 (1933); M. Biltz and J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 561–569 (1948).

W. Meidinger and H. Mucha, Physik. Zeits. 40, 239–240 (1939).

K. Fajans, Radioelements and Isotopes. Chemical Forces and Optical Properties of Substances (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1931).

B. Barshchevskii, Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. 65, 25–28 (1949).

F. C. Toy and H. A. Edgerton, Phil. Mag. (6)48, 947–961 (1924).

J. Eggert and W. Noddack, Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik.-math. Kl. 116–122 (1923); Zeits. f. Physik 20, 299–314 (1923); 21, 264 (1924); 31, 922–941 (1925); 34, 918–920 (1925).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. Physik 18, 232–237 (1923); 34, 907–917 (1925).

Ostwald, Luther, and Drucker, Hand- und Hilfsbuch zur Ausfiihrung physikochemischer Messungen (Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft, Leipzig, 1925), fourth edition, pp. 734–735.

B. H. Carroll (private communication).

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), Phil. Mag. (4)41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871).

P. Compan, Comptes Rendus 128, 1226–1229 (1899).

R. Clausius, Poggendorff’s Ann. d. Physik 72, 294 (1847): 76, 161, 188 (1849); 121, 1 (1864). Quoted from Wo. Ostwald, Licht unci Farbe in Kolloiden (Theodor Steinkopff Verlag., Dresden and Leipzig, 1924), pp. 11, 80.

E. Gretener, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 38, 248–286 (1939).

A complete theory of light-scattering as a function of particle size is given by J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), pp. 563–573. See also reference 25.

D. Sinclair and V. K. LaMer, Chem. Rev. 44, 245–267 (1949).

O. Stasiw and J. Teltow, Göttingen, Nachrichten, Math.-physik. Kl 93–99, 100–109, 110–118 (1941); 156–163 (1944); Zeits. f, wiss. Phot. 40, 157–165 (1941),

J. Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Physik (4)4, 796–810 (1901).

J. Koenigsberger and K. Kilchling, Ann. d. Physik (4)28, 889–924 (1909).

F. C. Toy and G. B. Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 127A, 613–628 (1930), p. 626.

O. Masaki, Memoirs College of Science, Kyoto Imp. Univ. 12A, 127–134 (1929); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)1, 231–237 (1930).

O. D. Barteneva and Yu. N. Gorokhovski, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 14, 193–198 (1944).

R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420–431 (1947); R. Sherr, Rev. Sci. Inst. 18, 767–770 (1947). This has not been tested for the internal image at very short exposure times.

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305–319 (1923); J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157–169 (1933).

B. O’Brien, Phys. Rev. 50, 400–401 (1936).

J. Eggert and F. G. Kleinschrod, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 189, 1–9 (1941).

H. Sauvenier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liége 16, 54–59 (1947); Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 305–306 (1948); H. Tellez-Plasencia, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 45–56 (1948).

J. R. Haynes, in Preparation and Characteristics of Solid Luminescent Materials (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), Symposium held at Cornell University, October 24–26, 1946, pp. 430–431; J. R. Haynes and W. Shockley, in Report of a Conference on Strength of Solids, held at H. H. Wills Physical Laboratory, University of Bristol, July 7–9, 1947 (The Physical Society, London, 1948), pp. 151–157.

K. E. Zimens, Arkiv f. Kemi, Min. Geol. 23A, No. 16, 1–21 (1947).

To explain experimental results obtained by exposing latent images, formed at - 185°C, simultaneously to actinic and bleaching (infra-red) radiation at the same low temperature, W. F. Berg [Trans. Faraday Soc. 35, 445–458 (1939)3 assumed that under those conditions electrons may be trapped in two ways: either in shallow and numerous traps, or in deep and relatively fewer traps. He further assumed that the shallow traps exist in the silver halide and the deep traps in the sensitivity nuclei. From the present experiments, it seems to follow that this concept is not restricted to the latent-image formation at low temperature, although in commercial (chemically sensitized) emulsions exposed at room temperature and developed in commercial (substantially surface) developers the significance of the shallow traps is small.

M. Bodenstein, Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl. No. 19, 1–32 (1941).

J. W. Mitchell, Sci. et Ind. Photo. (2)19, 361–369 (1948); Phil. Mag. (7)40, 249–268, 667–669 (1949).

See, for example, the review by H. Socher, in Stenger-Staude, Vol. 3 [Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, (1944)1 pp. 113–139.

V. S. Anastasevich and Ya. T. Frenkel, J. Exper. Theor. Phys. U.S.S.R. 11, 127–132 (1941).

W. Lehfeldt, Zeits. f. Physik 85, 717–726 (1933).

C. Tubandt, Zeits. f. anorg. Chemie 115, 105–126 (1921).

G. Glaser, Ann. d. Physik (5)27, 217–232 (1936).

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