Abstract

Several conceivable methods for the formation of optical images by x-rays are considered, and a method employing concave mirrors is adopted as the most promising. A concave spherical mirror receiving radiation at grazing incidence (a necessary arrangement with x-rays) images a point into a line in accordance with a focal length ƒ =<i>Ri</i>/2 where <i>R</i> is the radius of curvature and i the grazing angle. The image is subject to an aberration such that a ray reflected at the periphery of the mirror misses the focal point of central rays by a distance given approximately by <i>S</i>=1.5<i>Mr</i><sup>2</sup>/<i>R</i>, where <i>M</i> is the magnification of the image and r is the radius of the mirror face. The theoretically possible resolving power is such as to resolve point objects separated by about 70A, a limit which is independent of the wave-length used. Point images of points and therefore extended images of extended objects may be produced by causing the radiation to reflect from two concave mirrors in series. Sample results are presented.

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