Abstract

For routine quantitative spectrographic analysis of phosphorus, using the line at 2136A, the Geiger-Müller photoelectron counter has certain advantages over both the photographic plate and the electron multiplier photo-tube. The construction of the counters and the methods of electrically shielding and mounting them on the Littrow spectrograph are briefly described. The adjustments of counter orientation, slit widths, and focus are discussed with reference to the analyses of ferrous alloys where good resolution is necessary. Because of the absorption of radiation by quartz at low wave-lengths, both absolute and relative intensities are dependent upon the position of the arc on the electrode surface. This effect, which results in appreciable error in the measured percentage composition of a sample, is investigated photographically and with G-M counters, and several methods of reducing the effect are discussed. The effect of temperature changes of the dispersing prism on line position is investigated and a suitable method of control is mentioned. Preliminary consideration of this direct-reading method shows that it seems possible to reduce the various errors so that the source fluctuation is the controlling factor.

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  1. E. A. Boettner and G. P. Brewington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 6 (1944).
  2. M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).
  3. G. A. Nahstoll and F. R. Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 646 (1945).
  4. D. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).
  5. G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 192 (1946).
  6. K. G. Kessler and R. A. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 133 (1947).
  7. O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942). Our attention has been called to a recent article by Borison and Fogel, J. Exper. and Theoret. Phys., U.S.S.R. 17, No. 5 (May, 1947), on the use of Geiger-Müller counters in quantitative spectrographic analysis.
  8. O. S. Duffendack and K. Thomson, Proc. Am. Soc, Test. Mat. 36, 301 (1936).
  9. J. H. Enns and R. A. Wolfe, Paper presented at the A.S.T.M. Symposium on Spectroscopic Light Sources, June 20, 1946, at Buffalo, New York.
  10. O. S. Duffendack, H. Lifschutz, and M. M. Slawsky, Phys. Rev. 52, 1231 (1937).
  11. O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942).
  12. W. Christoph, Ann. d. Physik 26, 145 (1936).
  13. J. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Petersen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).
  14. H. Lifschutz, Rev. Sci. Inst. 10, 21 (1939).
  15. H. V. Neher and W. W. Harper, Phys. Rev. 49, 940 (1936).
  16. M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).
  17. R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1944), p. 118 ff.
  18. T. R. Mertn, Proc. Roy. Soc. 113A, 704 (1927).
  19. R. M. Sawyer and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 47 (1941).
  20. H. H. Grossman, R. H. Sawyer, and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 185 (1943).

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner and G. P. Brewington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 6 (1944).

Brewington, G. P.

E. A. Boettner and G. P. Brewington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 6 (1944).

Bryan, F. R.

G. A. Nahstoll and F. R. Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 646 (1945).

Caldecourt, V. J.

D. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

J. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Petersen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

Christoph, W.

W. Christoph, Ann. d. Physik 26, 145 (1936).

Crosswhite, H. M.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 192 (1946).

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 192 (1946).

Dietert, H. W.

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

Duffendack, O. S.

O. S. Duffendack, H. Lifschutz, and M. M. Slawsky, Phys. Rev. 52, 1231 (1937).

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942).

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942). Our attention has been called to a recent article by Borison and Fogel, J. Exper. and Theoret. Phys., U.S.S.R. 17, No. 5 (May, 1947), on the use of Geiger-Müller counters in quantitative spectrographic analysis.

O. S. Duffendack and K. Thomson, Proc. Am. Soc, Test. Mat. 36, 301 (1936).

Enns, J. H.

J. H. Enns and R. A. Wolfe, Paper presented at the A.S.T.M. Symposium on Spectroscopic Light Sources, June 20, 1946, at Buffalo, New York.

Grossman, H. H.

H. H. Grossman, R. H. Sawyer, and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 185 (1943).

Harper, W. W.

H. V. Neher and W. W. Harper, Phys. Rev. 49, 940 (1936).

Hasler, M. F.

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

Kessler, K. G.

K. G. Kessler and R. A. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 133 (1947).

Lifschutz, H.

H. Lifschutz, Rev. Sci. Inst. 10, 21 (1939).

O. S. Duffendack, H. Lifschutz, and M. M. Slawsky, Phys. Rev. 52, 1231 (1937).

Mertn, T. R.

T. R. Mertn, Proc. Roy. Soc. 113A, 704 (1927).

Morris, W. E.

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942).

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942). Our attention has been called to a recent article by Borison and Fogel, J. Exper. and Theoret. Phys., U.S.S.R. 17, No. 5 (May, 1947), on the use of Geiger-Müller counters in quantitative spectrographic analysis.

Nahstoll, G. A.

G. A. Nahstoll and F. R. Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 646 (1945).

Neher, H. V.

H. V. Neher and W. W. Harper, Phys. Rev. 49, 940 (1936).

Petersen, E. W.

J. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Petersen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

Peterson, E. W.

D. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

Saunderson, D. L.

D. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

Saunderson, J. L.

J. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Petersen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

Sawyer, R. A.

R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1944), p. 118 ff.

Sawyer, R. H.

H. H. Grossman, R. H. Sawyer, and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 185 (1943).

Sawyer, R. M.

R. M. Sawyer and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 47 (1941).

Slawsky, M. M.

O. S. Duffendack, H. Lifschutz, and M. M. Slawsky, Phys. Rev. 52, 1231 (1937).

Thomson, K.

O. S. Duffendack and K. Thomson, Proc. Am. Soc, Test. Mat. 36, 301 (1936).

Vincent, H. B.

R. M. Sawyer and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 47 (1941).

H. H. Grossman, R. H. Sawyer, and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 185 (1943).

Wolfe, R. A.

J. H. Enns and R. A. Wolfe, Paper presented at the A.S.T.M. Symposium on Spectroscopic Light Sources, June 20, 1946, at Buffalo, New York.

K. G. Kessler and R. A. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 133 (1947).

Other

E. A. Boettner and G. P. Brewington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 6 (1944).

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

G. A. Nahstoll and F. R. Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 646 (1945).

D. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 192 (1946).

K. G. Kessler and R. A. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 133 (1947).

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942). Our attention has been called to a recent article by Borison and Fogel, J. Exper. and Theoret. Phys., U.S.S.R. 17, No. 5 (May, 1947), on the use of Geiger-Müller counters in quantitative spectrographic analysis.

O. S. Duffendack and K. Thomson, Proc. Am. Soc, Test. Mat. 36, 301 (1936).

J. H. Enns and R. A. Wolfe, Paper presented at the A.S.T.M. Symposium on Spectroscopic Light Sources, June 20, 1946, at Buffalo, New York.

O. S. Duffendack, H. Lifschutz, and M. M. Slawsky, Phys. Rev. 52, 1231 (1937).

O. S. Duffendack and W. E. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 8 (1942).

W. Christoph, Ann. d. Physik 26, 145 (1936).

J. L. Saunderson, V. J. Caldecourt, and E. W. Petersen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 681 (1945).

H. Lifschutz, Rev. Sci. Inst. 10, 21 (1939).

H. V. Neher and W. W. Harper, Phys. Rev. 49, 940 (1936).

M. F. Hasler and H. W. Dietert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 751 (1944).

R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1944), p. 118 ff.

T. R. Mertn, Proc. Roy. Soc. 113A, 704 (1927).

R. M. Sawyer and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 47 (1941).

H. H. Grossman, R. H. Sawyer, and H. B. Vincent, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 185 (1943).

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