Abstract

An absolute scale of performance is set up in terms of the performance of an ideal picture pickup device, that is, one limited only by random fluctuations in the primary photo process. Only one parameter, the quantum efficiency of the primary photo process, locates position on this scale. The characteristic equation for the performance of an ideal device has the form <i>BC</i><sup>2</sup>α<sup>2</sup> = constant where <i>B</i> is the luminance of the scene, and <i>C</i> and α are respectively the threshold contrast and angular size of a test object in the scene. This ideal type of performance is shown to be satisfied by a simple experimental television pickup arrangement. By means of the arrangement, two parameters, storage time of the eye and threshold signal-to-noise ratio are determined to be 0.2 seconds and five respectively. Published data on the performance of the eye are compared with ideal performance. In the ranges of <i>B</i>(10<sup>-6</sup> to 10<sup>2</sup> footlamberts), <i>C</i>(2 to 100 percent) and α(2' to 100'), the performance of the eye may be matched by an ideal device having a quantum efficiency of 5 percent at low lights and 0.5 percent at high lights. This is of considerable technical importance in simplifying the analysis of problems involving comparisons of the performance of the eye and man-made devices. To the extent that independent measurements of the quantum efficiency of the eye confirm the values (0.5 percent to 5.0 percent), the performance of the eye is limited by fluctuations in the primary photo process. To the same extent, other mechanisms for describing the eye that do not take these fluctuations into account are ruled out. It is argued that the phenomenon of dark adaptation can be ascribed only in small part to the primary photo-process and must be mainly controlled by a variable gain mechanism located between the primary photo-process and the nerve fibers carrying pulses to the brain.

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  1. A. Rose, "The relative sensitivities of television pickup tubes, photographic film and the human eye," Proc. I.R.E. 30, 295 (1942).
  2. H. DeVries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica 10, 553 (1943).
  3. A. Rose, "A unified approach to the performance of photographic film, television pickup tubes and the human eye," J.S.M.P.E. 47, 273 (1946).
  4. G. C. Sziklai, R. C. Ballard and A. C. Schroeder, "An experimental simultaneous color television system, Part II: Pickup equipment," Proc. I.R.E. 35, 862 (1947).
  5. J. P. Connor and R. E. Ganoung, "An experimental determination of visual thresholds at low values of illumination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 287 (1935).
  6. P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of visual threshold," J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831 (1928).
  7. H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
  8. P. Reeves, "The response of the average pupil to various intensities of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35 (1920).
  9. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, "Photographic granularity and graininess," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).
  10. S. Hecht, "The instantaneous visual thresholds after light adaptation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 23, 227 (1937).
  11. A. Rose, P. K. Weimer, and H. B. Law, "The imageorthicon, a sensitive television pickup tube," Proc. I.R.E. 34, 424 (1946).
  12. S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).
  13. M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, "Tungsten, mercury and sodium illuminants at low brightness levels," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).
  14. I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, "A study of light signals in aviation and navigation," Physics 1, 273 (1931).
  15. S. Hecht, "The quantum relations of vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942).
  16. E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).
  17. H. K. Hartline, "Nerve messages in the fibers of the visual pathway," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 239 (1940).

1946

A. Rose, "A unified approach to the performance of photographic film, television pickup tubes and the human eye," J.S.M.P.E. 47, 273 (1946).

H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, "Photographic granularity and graininess," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).

1943

H. DeVries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica 10, 553 (1943).

E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).

1942

S. Hecht, "The quantum relations of vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942).

S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).

1940

1938

1937

S. Hecht, "The instantaneous visual thresholds after light adaptation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 23, 227 (1937).

1935

1931

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, "A study of light signals in aviation and navigation," Physics 1, 273 (1931).

1928

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of visual threshold," J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831 (1928).

1920

Ballard, R. C.

G. C. Sziklai, R. C. Ballard and A. C. Schroeder, "An experimental simultaneous color television system, Part II: Pickup equipment," Proc. I.R.E. 35, 862 (1947).

Blackwell, H. R.

Brumberg, E. M.

E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).

Chase, A. M.

S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of visual threshold," J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831 (1928).

Connor, J. P.

DeVries, H.

H. DeVries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica 10, 553 (1943).

Ganoung, R. E.

Hartline, H. K.

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, "The quantum relations of vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942).

S. Hecht, "The instantaneous visual thresholds after light adaptation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 23, 227 (1937).

Higgins, G. C.

Jones, L. A.

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, "A study of light signals in aviation and navigation," Physics 1, 273 (1931).

Law, H. B.

A. Rose, P. K. Weimer, and H. B. Law, "The imageorthicon, a sensitive television pickup tube," Proc. I.R.E. 34, 424 (1946).

Luckiesh, M.

Moss, F. K.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of visual threshold," J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831 (1928).

Reeves, P.

Rose, A.

A. Rose, "A unified approach to the performance of photographic film, television pickup tubes and the human eye," J.S.M.P.E. 47, 273 (1946).

A. Rose, "The relative sensitivities of television pickup tubes, photographic film and the human eye," Proc. I.R.E. 30, 295 (1942).

A. Rose, P. K. Weimer, and H. B. Law, "The imageorthicon, a sensitive television pickup tube," Proc. I.R.E. 34, 424 (1946).

Schroeder, A. C.

G. C. Sziklai, R. C. Ballard and A. C. Schroeder, "An experimental simultaneous color television system, Part II: Pickup equipment," Proc. I.R.E. 35, 862 (1947).

Shlaer, S.

S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).

Smith, E. L.

S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).

Sverdlov, Z. M.

E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).

Sziklai, G. C.

G. C. Sziklai, R. C. Ballard and A. C. Schroeder, "An experimental simultaneous color television system, Part II: Pickup equipment," Proc. I.R.E. 35, 862 (1947).

Taylor, A. H.

Vavilov, S. I.

E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).

Weimer, P. K.

A. Rose, P. K. Weimer, and H. B. Law, "The imageorthicon, a sensitive television pickup tube," Proc. I.R.E. 34, 424 (1946).

Westendorp, W. F.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, "A study of light signals in aviation and navigation," Physics 1, 273 (1931).

J. Frank. Inst.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of visual threshold," J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831 (1928).

J. Gen. Physiol.

S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith and A. M. Chase, "Visual acuity and illumination in different spectral regions," J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553 (1942).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. U.S.S.R.

E. M. Brumberg, S. I. Vavilov and Z. M. Sverdlov, "Visual measurements of quantum fluctuations," J. Phys. U.S.S.R. 7, 1 (1943).

J.S.M.P.E.

A. Rose, "A unified approach to the performance of photographic film, television pickup tubes and the human eye," J.S.M.P.E. 47, 273 (1946).

Physica

H. DeVries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica 10, 553 (1943).

Physics

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, "A study of light signals in aviation and navigation," Physics 1, 273 (1931).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.

S. Hecht, "The instantaneous visual thresholds after light adaptation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 23, 227 (1937).

Other

A. Rose, P. K. Weimer, and H. B. Law, "The imageorthicon, a sensitive television pickup tube," Proc. I.R.E. 34, 424 (1946).

A. Rose, "The relative sensitivities of television pickup tubes, photographic film and the human eye," Proc. I.R.E. 30, 295 (1942).

G. C. Sziklai, R. C. Ballard and A. C. Schroeder, "An experimental simultaneous color television system, Part II: Pickup equipment," Proc. I.R.E. 35, 862 (1947).

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