Abstract

Columbium nitride superconducting bolometers have been studied for sensitivity when irradiated with a wide band of modulated infra-red radiation of about 0.1 microwatt/mm2 intensity. The bolometer response was amplified by means of a matching input transformer and wide-band amplifier. Time constants for different bolometers ranging from 0.7 to 17.0 milliseconds were observed. Comparisons are given between these superconducting bolometers and other infra-red detectors described in the literature on the basis of reference conditions suggested by Jones (reference 1). Of the 25 superconducting bolometers studied in detail the 9 most sensitive had figures of merit ranging from 14.0 to 1.3.

© 1948 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 888 (1947).
  2. D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. H. Andrews, R. M. Milton, and W. DeSorbo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 518 (1946); D. H. Andrews, Phys. Soc. Cambridge Conference Report, p. 56 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Milton, Chem. Rev. 39, 419 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. These values, together with the form of Eq. (2), are taken from pages 427–8 of reference 4.
  6. D. H. Andrews and C. W. Clark, Nature 158, 945 (1946); Phys. Rev. 72, 161 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  7. In his published paper (see footnote 1) Jones originally stated these reference conditions for a sinusoidal radiation signal. However, in a private communication of May13, 1948 he has informed the author of certain changes which he plans to publish soon. The author is grateful to Dr. Jones for permission to employ this revised form, together with the figure of merit definition, in this paper prior to the publication of Dr. Jones’ own paper.
  8. Equation (5) and its proof are implicit, but do not appear explicitly in R. Clark Jones’ published paper (see footnote 1).
  9. The wave form of the radiation falling on the superconducting bolometers was approximately square wave, or, more accurately, a truncated saw-tooth wave. No correction has been made for this deviation from the sinusoidal wave form called for here.
  10. R. Havens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 355A (1946).
  11. Four points on this graph and the two limit lines were obtained from Fig. 1, p. 886, of reference 1. Dr. Jones suggested the inversion of the form of the figure from that given in his published paper. It should be noted that the Havens’ limit is based upon a test set-up using a single pulse of radiation of a duration equal to that of the time constant of the detector. The thermodynamic limit, as well as the plotted points, refers to testing with a single infinitely long radiation pulse.
  12. The superconducting bolometers were irradiated by an approximately blackbody source held at a temperature of near 100°C, so that the energy peak was close to 712 microns, the radiation passing through one thin rocksalt window and 30 cm of rather humid air before reaching the bolometer.
  13. Van Zandt Williams, Rev. Sci. Inst. 19, 135 (1948). See particularly p. 161.
    [Crossref]
  14. Preliminary tests on 2 CbN bolometers with a narrow-band pass amplifier still under development in this laboratory have indicated figures of merit several times smaller than those tabulated in Table II, which were obtained from the wide-band pass amplifier data.

1948 (1)

Van Zandt Williams, Rev. Sci. Inst. 19, 135 (1948). See particularly p. 161.
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 888 (1947).

1946 (4)

D. H. Andrews, R. M. Milton, and W. DeSorbo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 518 (1946); D. H. Andrews, Phys. Soc. Cambridge Conference Report, p. 56 (1947).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Milton, Chem. Rev. 39, 419 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Andrews and C. W. Clark, Nature 158, 945 (1946); Phys. Rev. 72, 161 (1947).
[Crossref]

R. Havens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 355A (1946).

1942 (1)

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Andrews, D. H.

D. H. Andrews and C. W. Clark, Nature 158, 945 (1946); Phys. Rev. 72, 161 (1947).
[Crossref]

D. H. Andrews, R. M. Milton, and W. DeSorbo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 518 (1946); D. H. Andrews, Phys. Soc. Cambridge Conference Report, p. 56 (1947).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, E. R.

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Brucksch, W. F.

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Clark, C. W.

D. H. Andrews and C. W. Clark, Nature 158, 945 (1946); Phys. Rev. 72, 161 (1947).
[Crossref]

Clark Jones, R.

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 888 (1947).

Equation (5) and its proof are implicit, but do not appear explicitly in R. Clark Jones’ published paper (see footnote 1).

DeSorbo, W.

Havens, R.

R. Havens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 355A (1946).

Jones,

In his published paper (see footnote 1) Jones originally stated these reference conditions for a sinusoidal radiation signal. However, in a private communication of May13, 1948 he has informed the author of certain changes which he plans to publish soon. The author is grateful to Dr. Jones for permission to employ this revised form, together with the figure of merit definition, in this paper prior to the publication of Dr. Jones’ own paper.

Milton, R. M.

Williams, Van Zandt

Van Zandt Williams, Rev. Sci. Inst. 19, 135 (1948). See particularly p. 161.
[Crossref]

Ziegler, W. T.

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

R. M. Milton, Chem. Rev. 39, 419 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Nature (1)

D. H. Andrews and C. W. Clark, Nature 158, 945 (1946); Phys. Rev. 72, 161 (1947).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (2)

D. H. Andrews, W. F. Brucksch, W. T. Ziegler, and E. R. Blanchard, Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 281 (1942).
[Crossref]

Van Zandt Williams, Rev. Sci. Inst. 19, 135 (1948). See particularly p. 161.
[Crossref]

Other (7)

Preliminary tests on 2 CbN bolometers with a narrow-band pass amplifier still under development in this laboratory have indicated figures of merit several times smaller than those tabulated in Table II, which were obtained from the wide-band pass amplifier data.

Four points on this graph and the two limit lines were obtained from Fig. 1, p. 886, of reference 1. Dr. Jones suggested the inversion of the form of the figure from that given in his published paper. It should be noted that the Havens’ limit is based upon a test set-up using a single pulse of radiation of a duration equal to that of the time constant of the detector. The thermodynamic limit, as well as the plotted points, refers to testing with a single infinitely long radiation pulse.

The superconducting bolometers were irradiated by an approximately blackbody source held at a temperature of near 100°C, so that the energy peak was close to 712 microns, the radiation passing through one thin rocksalt window and 30 cm of rather humid air before reaching the bolometer.

These values, together with the form of Eq. (2), are taken from pages 427–8 of reference 4.

In his published paper (see footnote 1) Jones originally stated these reference conditions for a sinusoidal radiation signal. However, in a private communication of May13, 1948 he has informed the author of certain changes which he plans to publish soon. The author is grateful to Dr. Jones for permission to employ this revised form, together with the figure of merit definition, in this paper prior to the publication of Dr. Jones’ own paper.

Equation (5) and its proof are implicit, but do not appear explicitly in R. Clark Jones’ published paper (see footnote 1).

The wave form of the radiation falling on the superconducting bolometers was approximately square wave, or, more accurately, a truncated saw-tooth wave. No correction has been made for this deviation from the sinusoidal wave form called for here.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Superconducting bolometers. The short thick base type, which represents a transition from the cup-shaped bases previously made, is being replaced by the long slim base for use in spectrometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of apparatus used in testing sensitivity of bolometers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of cryostat designed to accommodate the short thick base type of bolometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the pressure control rig. The gauges include a dial-type pressure gauge, a closed tube mercury manometer, and a pressure differential oil manometer. The small valve in the lower left is a fine adjustment bypass valve. The lowest tube leading off to the right goes to a vacuum pump; the one immediately above it opens to the air; the tube at the top right of the board is attached to the hydrogen pot of the cryostat by means of the rubber pressure tubing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of transition curve for bolometer No. 13 for a bolometer current of 31 ma. The slanting straight line indicates the steady rise in “sink” temperature from 15 1 2 ° K to 16°K as the bolometer resistance changes along the “transition” curve from zero to 0.3 ohm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of transition curve for bolometer No. 13 with current of 31 ma. Intense radiation (100 microwatt/mm2) modulated at 1 3 c.p.s. causes the fluctuations which are the greatest in the steepest part of the transition curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of an infra-red response curve for bolometer No. 13 with bolometer current of 31 ma. This record was taken simultaneously with the transition curve shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graph of ΔJ0,1vs. τ-values taken from Table II. The shapes of the points have the following significance:

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of superconducting bolometer parameters and sensitivities.

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of superconducting bolometers and other detectors as to sensitivity, time constant, figure of merit, etc.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ J = A a ϕ ( T ) / d 2 ,
ϕ ( T ) = ( σ / π ) ( α 1 β 1 T 1 4 - α 2 β 2 T 2 4 ) × 10 - 7 ,
ϕ ( T 1 ) = 1.02 × 10 - 12 ( T 1 4 - 8.1 × 10 8 ) .
Δ J min = Δ J / ( Δ E b / Δ E n )
ϵ = Δ E b / Δ J .
Δ J 0 = Δ J min / ( 4 τ Δ ν ( 1 + ω 2 τ 2 ) ) 1 2 ,
Δ J 0 , 1 = Δ J 0 / a 1 2 ,
M = H τ / Δ J 0 , 1 ,
H τ = ( 3 × 10 - 12 ) / τ ,