Abstract

Accepting the conclusion of Zernike that phase structures in an object may be converted into apparent amplitude structures in its image by alteration of phase of portions of the light at the Fraunhofer diffraction spectrum, a simple relationship between intrinsic object contrast and optimum absorption of the phase plate is developed. For this purpose, the definition of contrast as the ratio of the brightness difference between adjacent small areas in the image to the greater brightness of the two is employed, and considered more suitable than the simple ratio of the brightest area to the darkest. The departure of biologic structures from the periodicity and grating constants characteristic of perfect object gratings is handled by means of a parameter defined as the ratio of the energy transmission by the null order of the diffraction spectrum to the total energy transmission by all orders admitted by the limited apertures of the microscope. Calculations based on the formula developed are given in the form of tables and graphs.

© 1947 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Size, Shape, and Contrast in Detection of Targets by Daylight Vision. I. Data and Analytical Description1

Edward S. Lamar, Selig Hecht, Simon Shlaer, and Charles D. Hendley
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37(7) 531-545 (1947)

Image Contrast in Phase-Contrast Microscopy

Paul H. Keck and Arthur T. Brice
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39(7) 507-514 (1949)

Factors in Fluorescence Microscopy

D. H. Hamly and Charles Sheard
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37(5) 316-320 (1947)

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (3)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (2)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (8)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription