Abstract

The general method of making an evaporated multiple-layer interference filter from two dielectrics is described for any desired wave-length range. The proper thickness of each layer to give maximum reflection in the desired region and at the desired angle of incidence is first computed, and next the visible reflectivity of such a film at normal incidence. This visible reflectivity is used as the gauge to determine the proper thicknesses of the films and the point at which the evaporation of each layer should be stopped. Practical difficulties encountered in making these filters are also discussed with various ways of surmounting them.

Several examples of special filters for particular purposes are reviewed in detail, including infra-red and polarizing filters.

© 1947 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. The work described here was carried out in whole or in part under contract with Division 16 of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, at the University of Rochester.
  2. P. King and L. B. Lockhart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 513 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. L. Caballero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 710A (1946).
  4. R. L. Mooney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 256 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. D. Polster, J. Opt. Soc. Am.350A (1946).
  6. A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 711A (1946).
  7. Such filters are now being commercially produced by the Farrand Optical Company, Inc., New York City.
  8. A. H. Pfund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 99 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 73 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. H. Cartwright and A. F. Turner, Phys. Rev. 55, 1128A (1939).
  11. G. L. Dimmick, J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 38, 36 (1942).
  12. M. Banning and F. W. Paul, Rev. Sci. Inst. 15, 152 (1944).
    [Crossref]

1946 (5)

P. King and L. B. Lockhart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 513 (1946).
[Crossref]

D. L. Caballero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 710A (1946).

R. L. Mooney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 256 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Polster, J. Opt. Soc. Am.350A (1946).

A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 711A (1946).

1944 (1)

M. Banning and F. W. Paul, Rev. Sci. Inst. 15, 152 (1944).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

G. L. Dimmick, J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 38, 36 (1942).

1939 (1)

C. H. Cartwright and A. F. Turner, Phys. Rev. 55, 1128A (1939).

1936 (1)

1934 (1)

Banning, M.

M. Banning and F. W. Paul, Rev. Sci. Inst. 15, 152 (1944).
[Crossref]

Caballero, D. L.

D. L. Caballero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 710A (1946).

Cartwright, C. H.

C. H. Cartwright and A. F. Turner, Phys. Rev. 55, 1128A (1939).

Dimmick, G. L.

G. L. Dimmick, J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 38, 36 (1942).

King, P.

Lockhart, L. B.

Mooney, R. L.

Paul, F. W.

M. Banning and F. W. Paul, Rev. Sci. Inst. 15, 152 (1944).
[Crossref]

Pfund, A. H.

Polster, H. D.

H. D. Polster, J. Opt. Soc. Am.350A (1946).

Strong, J.

Turner, A. F.

A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 711A (1946).

C. H. Cartwright and A. F. Turner, Phys. Rev. 55, 1128A (1939).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. (1)

G. L. Dimmick, J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 38, 36 (1942).

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. H. Cartwright and A. F. Turner, Phys. Rev. 55, 1128A (1939).

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

M. Banning and F. W. Paul, Rev. Sci. Inst. 15, 152 (1944).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Such filters are now being commercially produced by the Farrand Optical Company, Inc., New York City.

The work described here was carried out in whole or in part under contract with Division 16 of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, at the University of Rochester.

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Figures (7)

F. 1
F. 1

Schematic diagram of three-layer filter.

F. 2
F. 2

Effect of addition of layers, first-order interference. (1) 1 ZnS layer; (2) 2 ZnS and 1 cryolite; (3) 3 ZnS and 2 cryolite; (4) 4 ZnS and 3 cryolite; (5) 5 ZnS and 4 cryolite.

F. 3
F. 3

Second-order fiters of seven layers. (1) ZnS to second magenta; (2) ZnS to second yellow; (3) ZnS to second white; (4) ZnS to second blue, first bright blue.

F. 4
F. 4

Effect of changing the order of cryolite in a three-layer filter. ZnS always first order. (1) cryolite first order; (2) cryolite second order; (3) cryolite third order.

F. 5
F. 5

Multilayer filter designed to distinguish between the emission of two phosphors.

F. 6
F. 6

Multilayer filter designed to sharpen the cut-off of another infra-red filter.

F. 7
F. 7

Schematic diagram of a polarizing beam splitter.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Colors of different thickness of zinc sulfide and cryolite films as seen by reflection at normal incidence.

Tables Icon

Table II Ratio of undesired to desired components of sample polarizing: prism.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n t = λ / 4 = 3 x / 4 ,
n t = 3 λ / 4 = 5 x / 4 = 7 y / 4 = 9 z / 4 .
n t = λ 4 cos θ = λ 4 ,
n g 2 = 2 n f 2 n s 2 / ( n f 2 + n s 2 ) .
V g = n g ( n f 2 + n s 2 ) V s ( n g 1 ) / n s ( 2 n f 2 n g 2 ) ( n s 1 ) .