Abstract

The color cards of the Textile Color Card Association of the United States are widely used in the textile and allied industries and by many procuring agencies of the federal government. The Textile Color Card Association issues both seasonal and standard color cards. The seasonal cards provide a color forecasting service to textile manufacturers and promote color coordination among the trades; the standard cards present colors for which there is a popular and continuing demand. Most important of the color cards is the Standard Color Card of America, the current ninth edition containing 216 colors. Pre-eminent among the many special sets of color cards issued by the Association for use of the federal government is the United States Army Color Card showing 22 official colors for the arms and services. The specification of the colors of the Ninth Edition Standard Color Card and the United States Army Color Card has been undertaken for the purpose of correlating these textile standards with American War Standard Z44—1942 for the specification and description of color. The 238 samples comprising these color cards have been examined by basic spectrophotometric and colorimetric procedures. From this study there have been found daylight reflectance, Y, chromaticity coordinates (x, y), Munsell renotations, and ISCC-NBS color designations for these samples as recommended by American War Standard Z44—1942. Since more than half of these textile standards are fluorescent, and since existing spectrophotometers are not suited to the evaluation of such samples, considerable reliance has been placed on quantitative colorimetric and photometric comparisons with the Munsell color standards, both by means of a chromaticity-difference colorimeter and by the Martens photometer. As a closing check Munsell book notations of these textile standards have been obtained by a direct visual comparison with the color scales of the Munsell Book of Color.

© 1946 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. American War Standard Z 44—1942, Specification, and Description of Color (American Standards Association, 70 E. 45 Street, New York, New York, 1942).
  2. British Colour Council Dictionary of Colour Standards (The British Colour Council, 28 Sackville Street, London, W. 1, 1938), pp. 95–99.
  3. G. L. Buc and E. I. Stearns, “Use of retardation plates in spectrophotometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 521 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. E. Forsythe and E. Q. Adams, “Establishing and maintaining a color temperature scale,” Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 38, 26 (1943).
  5. K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “On the magnitude of the error resulting from fluorescence in spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 180 (1938).
  6. K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “Calibration and operation of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer of the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 374 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, “Trichromatic specifications for intermediate and special colors of the Munsell system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. C. Granville and E. Jacobson, “Colorimetric specification of the Color Harmony Manual from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 382 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, 1936).
  10. A. C. Hardy, “History of the design of the recording spectrophotometer,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 360 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. C. Hardy, “Illuminating and viewing conditions for spectrophotometry and colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 289 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. v. Helmholtz, “Treatise on Physiological Optics,” Translated from the third German Edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall, 1, 231 (The Optical Society of America, 1924).
  13. R. S. Hunter, “Multipurpose photoelectric reflectometer,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 25, 581 (1940); RP1345; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 536 (1940). Abridged version in Paper Trade J. 113, TS275 (Nov.27, 1941).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. S. Hunter, “Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters,” Circular of the National Bureau of Standards No. C429 (July30, 1942).
  15. D. B. Judd, “1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. B. Judd, “Optical specification of light-scattering materials,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand.,  19, 287 (1937); RP1026.
    [Crossref]
  17. D. B. Judd, “Specification of uniform color tolerances for textiles,” Textile Research 9, 253, 292 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 23, 355 (1939); RP 1239.
    [Crossref]
  19. K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 31, 55 (1943); RP1549; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Kubelka and F. Munk, “Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche,” Zeits. f. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).
  21. F. F. Martens, “Ueber ein neues Polarisationsphotometer,” Physik. Zeits. 1, 299 (1900).
  22. H. J. McNicholas, “Absolute methods in reflectometry,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 35 (1928); RP3.
    [Crossref]
  23. H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 828 (1928); RP30.
    [Crossref]
  24. J. L. Michaelson, “Construction of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 368 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  25. Munsell Book of Color, standard and abridged edition (Munsell Color Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1929), 40-hue-chart edition, 1942.
  26. S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, “Final report of the O.S.A. subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  27. O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “The psychophysics of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 265 (1944).
  28. O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “Quantitative data and methods for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 647 (1944).
  29. “Preparation and colorimetric properties of a magnesium-oxide reflectance standard,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Letter Circular LC-547, March17, 1939.
  30. Proceedings of the 8th Session, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Cambridge, England, pp. 19–29 (September, 1931).
  31. G. B. Reimann, “A device to facilitate the reading of spectrophotometric curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 806 (1945).
  32. Standard Color Card of America (Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Ave., New York, New York, 1941), ninth edition.
  33. United States Army Color Card (Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Ave., New York, New York, 1930, revised 1938, 1943).

1945 (3)

G. L. Buc and E. I. Stearns, “Use of retardation plates in spectrophotometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 521 (1945).
[Crossref]

A. C. Hardy, “Illuminating and viewing conditions for spectrophotometry and colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 289 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. B. Reimann, “A device to facilitate the reading of spectrophotometric curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 806 (1945).

1944 (3)

O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “The psychophysics of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 265 (1944).

O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “Quantitative data and methods for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 647 (1944).

W. C. Granville and E. Jacobson, “Colorimetric specification of the Color Harmony Manual from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 382 (1944).
[Crossref]

1943 (4)

W. E. Forsythe and E. Q. Adams, “Establishing and maintaining a color temperature scale,” Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 38, 26 (1943).

W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, “Trichromatic specifications for intermediate and special colors of the Munsell system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 31, 55 (1943); RP1549; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355 (1943).
[Crossref]

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, “Final report of the O.S.A. subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

R. S. Hunter, “Multipurpose photoelectric reflectometer,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 25, 581 (1940); RP1345; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 536 (1940). Abridged version in Paper Trade J. 113, TS275 (Nov.27, 1941).
[Crossref]

1939 (2)

D. B. Judd, “Specification of uniform color tolerances for textiles,” Textile Research 9, 253, 292 (1939).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 23, 355 (1939); RP 1239.
[Crossref]

1938 (4)

A. C. Hardy, “History of the design of the recording spectrophotometer,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 360 (1938).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “On the magnitude of the error resulting from fluorescence in spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 180 (1938).

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “Calibration and operation of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer of the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 374 (1938).
[Crossref]

J. L. Michaelson, “Construction of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 368 (1938).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

D. B. Judd, “Optical specification of light-scattering materials,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand.,  19, 287 (1937); RP1026.
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

1931 (1)

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, “Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche,” Zeits. f. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

1928 (2)

H. J. McNicholas, “Absolute methods in reflectometry,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 35 (1928); RP3.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 828 (1928); RP30.
[Crossref]

1900 (1)

F. F. Martens, “Ueber ein neues Polarisationsphotometer,” Physik. Zeits. 1, 299 (1900).

Adams, E. Q.

W. E. Forsythe and E. Q. Adams, “Establishing and maintaining a color temperature scale,” Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 38, 26 (1943).

Buc, G. L.

G. L. Buc and E. I. Stearns, “Use of retardation plates in spectrophotometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 521 (1945).
[Crossref]

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe and E. Q. Adams, “Establishing and maintaining a color temperature scale,” Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 38, 26 (1943).

Foss, C. E.

Gibson, K. S.

K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 31, 55 (1943); RP1549; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355 (1943).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “Calibration and operation of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer of the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 374 (1938).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “On the magnitude of the error resulting from fluorescence in spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 180 (1938).

Granville, W. C.

Hardy, A. C.

Helmholtz, H. v.

H. v. Helmholtz, “Treatise on Physiological Optics,” Translated from the third German Edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall, 1, 231 (The Optical Society of America, 1924).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, “Multipurpose photoelectric reflectometer,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 25, 581 (1940); RP1345; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 536 (1940). Abridged version in Paper Trade J. 113, TS275 (Nov.27, 1941).
[Crossref]

R. S. Hunter, “Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters,” Circular of the National Bureau of Standards No. C429 (July30, 1942).

Jacobson, E.

Judd, D. B.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, “Final report of the O.S.A. subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “Specification of uniform color tolerances for textiles,” Textile Research 9, 253, 292 (1939).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 23, 355 (1939); RP 1239.
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “Optical specification of light-scattering materials,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand.,  19, 287 (1937); RP1026.
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
[Crossref]

Keegan, H. J.

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “On the magnitude of the error resulting from fluorescence in spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 180 (1938).

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “Calibration and operation of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer of the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 374 (1938).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 31, 55 (1943); RP1549; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 23, 355 (1939); RP 1239.
[Crossref]

Kubelka, P.

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, “Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche,” Zeits. f. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

Martens, F. F.

F. F. Martens, “Ueber ein neues Polarisationsphotometer,” Physik. Zeits. 1, 299 (1900).

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, “Absolute methods in reflectometry,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 35 (1928); RP3.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 828 (1928); RP30.
[Crossref]

Michaelson, J. L.

J. L. Michaelson, “Construction of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 368 (1938).
[Crossref]

Munk, F.

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, “Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche,” Zeits. f. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

Reimann, G. B.

G. B. Reimann, “A device to facilitate the reading of spectrophotometric curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 806 (1945).

Stearns, E. I.

G. L. Buc and E. I. Stearns, “Use of retardation plates in spectrophotometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 521 (1945).
[Crossref]

Bur. Stand. J. Research (2)

H. J. McNicholas, “Absolute methods in reflectometry,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 35 (1928); RP3.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” Bur. Stand. J. Research 1, 828 (1928); RP30.
[Crossref]

Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. (1)

W. E. Forsythe and E. Q. Adams, “Establishing and maintaining a color temperature scale,” Dennison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 38, 26 (1943).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (13)

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “On the magnitude of the error resulting from fluorescence in spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 180 (1938).

K. S. Gibson and H. J. Keegan, “Calibration and operation of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer of the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 374 (1938).
[Crossref]

W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, “Trichromatic specifications for intermediate and special colors of the Munsell system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
[Crossref]

W. C. Granville and E. Jacobson, “Colorimetric specification of the Color Harmony Manual from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 382 (1944).
[Crossref]

A. C. Hardy, “History of the design of the recording spectrophotometer,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 360 (1938).
[Crossref]

A. C. Hardy, “Illuminating and viewing conditions for spectrophotometry and colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 289 (1945).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. L. Buc and E. I. Stearns, “Use of retardation plates in spectrophotometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 521 (1945).
[Crossref]

J. L. Michaelson, “Construction of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 368 (1938).
[Crossref]

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, “Final report of the O.S.A. subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
[Crossref]

O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “The psychophysics of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 265 (1944).

O.S.A. Committee on Colorimetry, “Quantitative data and methods for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 647 (1944).

G. B. Reimann, “A device to facilitate the reading of spectrophotometric curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 806 (1945).

J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. (4)

D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 23, 355 (1939); RP 1239.
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 31, 55 (1943); RP1549; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “Optical specification of light-scattering materials,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand.,  19, 287 (1937); RP1026.
[Crossref]

R. S. Hunter, “Multipurpose photoelectric reflectometer,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 25, 581 (1940); RP1345; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 536 (1940). Abridged version in Paper Trade J. 113, TS275 (Nov.27, 1941).
[Crossref]

Physik. Zeits. (1)

F. F. Martens, “Ueber ein neues Polarisationsphotometer,” Physik. Zeits. 1, 299 (1900).

Textile Research (1)

D. B. Judd, “Specification of uniform color tolerances for textiles,” Textile Research 9, 253, 292 (1939).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. tech. Physik (1)

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, “Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche,” Zeits. f. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

Other (10)

R. S. Hunter, “Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters,” Circular of the National Bureau of Standards No. C429 (July30, 1942).

H. v. Helmholtz, “Treatise on Physiological Optics,” Translated from the third German Edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall, 1, 231 (The Optical Society of America, 1924).

American War Standard Z 44—1942, Specification, and Description of Color (American Standards Association, 70 E. 45 Street, New York, New York, 1942).

British Colour Council Dictionary of Colour Standards (The British Colour Council, 28 Sackville Street, London, W. 1, 1938), pp. 95–99.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, 1936).

Standard Color Card of America (Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Ave., New York, New York, 1941), ninth edition.

United States Army Color Card (Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Ave., New York, New York, 1930, revised 1938, 1943).

“Preparation and colorimetric properties of a magnesium-oxide reflectance standard,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Letter Circular LC-547, March17, 1939.

Proceedings of the 8th Session, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Cambridge, England, pp. 19–29 (September, 1931).

Munsell Book of Color, standard and abridged edition (Munsell Color Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1929), 40-hue-chart edition, 1942.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photomicrographs showing the weave of the fabric samples measured, (a) terra cotta (70161) from the Standard Color Card of America, (b) brick red (65020) from the United States Army Color Card. The illumination was at 45°; the direction of view, perpendicular to the gross plane of the sample. Note the presence of many highlights indicating surface-reflected light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical curve sheet drawn by recording spectrophotometer with 10-mμ spectral band. Three of the seven curves shown are for calibration (zero curve, Vitrolite curve, didymium curve); the remaining four indicate spectral reflectance of samples from the Standard Color Card of America (burgundy, 70102; fawn, 70105; beige, 70104; and ecru, 70103).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromaticities of a number of non-fluorescent and weakly fluorescent samples of the Standard Color Card of America obtained by three different methods (see text). The major portion of the discrepancies indicated occur along straight lines which, if extended, would pass close to the illuminant point (C).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral reflectance curves of a metameric pair (70130, 70034) of samples and of two pairs, (70130, 70131) and (70034, 70035), that are nearly non-metameric. The cross-check of the first pair revealed a discrepancy of 0.009 in chromaticity coordinates (x, y); those of the other two, 0.001 and 0.000, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromaticities of 33 out of the 55 strongly fluorescent samples of the Standard Color Card of America obtained by three different methods (see text). Note that the spectrophotometric result for a large majority of these samples differs importantly from those by the other two methods known to be applicable to fluorescent samples. It is therefore presumed that the degree and kind of fluorescence is such as to make the recording spectrophotometer inapplicable to these samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Chromaticities of the samples of the United States Army Color Card by three different methods (see text). Three of the samples (65003, 65004, and 65013) are strongly fluorescent (see Table IIb); the spectrophotometric results for these samples should not be expected to agree well with those by the other two methods.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Division of the hue, value, and chroma scales according to whether one or both of the samples defining an interval is to be used in deriving renotation value from book-notation value; example near 5R 4/2.

Tables Icon

Table IIa Summary of measurements of daylight reflectance relative to magnesium oxide, Y, and chromaticity coordinates, x and y.

Tables Icon

Table IIb Summary of measurements of daylight reflectance relative to magnesium oxide, Y, and chromaticity coordinates, x and y, for U. S. Army Card

Tables Icon

Table III Agreement between the spectrophotometric determinations of chromaticity differences (Δx, Δy) between neighboring samples of the Standard Card and the determination of the same differences by the subtractive colorimeter.

Tables Icon

Table IV Munsell book notations for 8 colors for which the differences between the mounted and unmounted samples were considered large enough to warrant evaluation.

Tables Icon

Table V Adopted color specifications for the TCCA Standard Color Card of America, ninth edition, and the U. S. Army Color Card.

Tables Icon

Table VI Visually estimated Munsell book notations of the TCCA color standards, and the differences between these estimates and the adopted book notations.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = k E c y ¯ / E s S ,
R 2 = a R w + b R b ,
a ( 1 / 0.78 ) [ ( R w + R b ) / 2 0.04 ] , b ( 1 / 0.78 ) [ 0.82 ( R w + R b ) / 2 ] . }
R 2 R s tan ( θ 1 ) cot ( θ 2 ) ,
X a = X + 0.010 X 0 , Y a = Y + 0.010 Y 0 , Z a = Z + 0.010 Z 0 , }
X = Y ( x / y ) Z = Y ( z / y ) = Y ( 1 x y ) / y } ,
x a = X a / ( X a + Y a + Z a ) , y a = Y a / ( X a + Y a + Z a ) .