Abstract

To determine the cause of loss of light output of fluorescent lamps the photo-decomposition of zinc silicate, zinc beryllium silicate, calcium tungstate, magnesium tungstate, and calcium cerium phosphate phosphors has been studied in a vacuum, air, and inert gases. The loss of light output has been shown to be caused by the photolysis of the commercial phosphors which is in contrast to the general theory in which the loss has been attributed to a film formation on the fluorescent particles. The photolysis of the silicate and tungstate phosphors is mainly caused by radiations less than 2000A. The calcium cerium phosphate is most sensitive to these radiations. The photochemically active center in the silicate phosphors appears to be the manganese atom. The tungsten and cerium atoms may be involved in the tungstate and phosphate phosphors, respectively.

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  1. L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).
  2. G. E. Inman, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 65 (1939). H. C. Froelich, "Chemical and physical stability of silicate phosphors," Trans. E.C.S. 87, 365 (1945).
  3. A. B. O'Day and R. F. Cissell, "Fluorescent lamps and their applications," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 1165 (1939). A. D. S. Atkinson, Fluorescent Lighting (George Newnese, Ltd., England, 1944). Farrington Daniels, Chemical Kinetics (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1938).
  4. G. K. Rollefson and M. Burton, Photochemistry (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1942). W. A. Noyes and P. A. Leighton, The Photochemistry of Gases (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).
  5. H. Krefft and K. Larche, "High pressure mercury lamps with phosphors," Das Licht 8, 133 (1938).
  6. Protective and Decorative Coatings, Vol. III, J. Mattiello, editor (John Wiley & Son, Inc., New York, 1943), Chapter 22A, p. 68.
  7. W. J. O'Brien, "A study of lithopone," J. Phys. Chem. 19, 113 (1915).
  8. Karl Gloor, "Photolysis with zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 853 (1937).
  9. Emil Baur, "The chemistry of phosphorescence of zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 878 (1937).
  10. N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).
  11. A. Eibner, "Lithopone," Farben Zeit. 30, 2600 (1925).
  12. F. Seitz, "The darkening of materials by light," J. App. Phys. 13, 639 (1942).
  13. C. Ellis and A. Wells, The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).
  14. Preparation of Phosphors: zinc silicate—Brit. Pat. 457,126 Nov. 23, 1936; magnesium tungstate—Brit. Pat. 469,732 July 27, 1937; zinc beryllium silicate—U. S. Pat. 2,103,085; calcium tungstate—Brit. Pat. 494,299 Oct. 20 (1938); calcium cerium phosphate—U. S. Pat. 2,306,567.
  15. H. C. Rentschler, "An ultraviolet light meter," J.A.I.E.E. 49, 113 (1930).
  16. J. W. Marden and G. Meister, "Effects of impurities on fluorescent compounds," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

1942 (2)

L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).

F. Seitz, "The darkening of materials by light," J. App. Phys. 13, 639 (1942).

1939 (4)

J. W. Marden and G. Meister, "Effects of impurities on fluorescent compounds," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

G. E. Inman, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 65 (1939). H. C. Froelich, "Chemical and physical stability of silicate phosphors," Trans. E.C.S. 87, 365 (1945).

A. B. O'Day and R. F. Cissell, "Fluorescent lamps and their applications," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 1165 (1939). A. D. S. Atkinson, Fluorescent Lighting (George Newnese, Ltd., England, 1944). Farrington Daniels, Chemical Kinetics (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1938).

N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).

1938 (1)

H. Krefft and K. Larche, "High pressure mercury lamps with phosphors," Das Licht 8, 133 (1938).

1937 (2)

Karl Gloor, "Photolysis with zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 853 (1937).

Emil Baur, "The chemistry of phosphorescence of zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 878 (1937).

1930 (1)

H. C. Rentschler, "An ultraviolet light meter," J.A.I.E.E. 49, 113 (1930).

1925 (1)

A. Eibner, "Lithopone," Farben Zeit. 30, 2600 (1925).

1915 (1)

W. J. O'Brien, "A study of lithopone," J. Phys. Chem. 19, 113 (1915).

Baur, Emil

Emil Baur, "The chemistry of phosphorescence of zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 878 (1937).

Burton, M.

G. K. Rollefson and M. Burton, Photochemistry (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1942). W. A. Noyes and P. A. Leighton, The Photochemistry of Gases (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Cissell, R. F.

A. B. O'Day and R. F. Cissell, "Fluorescent lamps and their applications," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 1165 (1939). A. D. S. Atkinson, Fluorescent Lighting (George Newnese, Ltd., England, 1944). Farrington Daniels, Chemical Kinetics (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1938).

Davis, L. J.

L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).

Eibner, A.

A. Eibner, "Lithopone," Farben Zeit. 30, 2600 (1925).

Ellis, C.

C. Ellis and A. Wells, The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Gloor, Karl

Karl Gloor, "Photolysis with zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 853 (1937).

Gordon, N. T.

N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).

Inman, G. E.

G. E. Inman, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 65 (1939). H. C. Froelich, "Chemical and physical stability of silicate phosphors," Trans. E.C.S. 87, 365 (1945).

Krefft, H.

H. Krefft and K. Larche, "High pressure mercury lamps with phosphors," Das Licht 8, 133 (1938).

Larche, K.

H. Krefft and K. Larche, "High pressure mercury lamps with phosphors," Das Licht 8, 133 (1938).

Marden, J. W.

J. W. Marden and G. Meister, "Effects of impurities on fluorescent compounds," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

Meister, G.

J. W. Marden and G. Meister, "Effects of impurities on fluorescent compounds," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

O’Brien, W. J.

W. J. O'Brien, "A study of lithopone," J. Phys. Chem. 19, 113 (1915).

O’Day, A. B.

A. B. O'Day and R. F. Cissell, "Fluorescent lamps and their applications," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 1165 (1939). A. D. S. Atkinson, Fluorescent Lighting (George Newnese, Ltd., England, 1944). Farrington Daniels, Chemical Kinetics (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1938).

Quinlan, F.

N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).

Rentschler, H. C.

H. C. Rentschler, "An ultraviolet light meter," J.A.I.E.E. 49, 113 (1930).

Rollefson, G. K.

G. K. Rollefson and M. Burton, Photochemistry (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1942). W. A. Noyes and P. A. Leighton, The Photochemistry of Gases (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Ruff, H. R.

L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).

Scott, W. J.

L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).

Seitz, F.

F. Seitz, "The darkening of materials by light," J. App. Phys. 13, 639 (1942).

N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).

Wells, A.

C. Ellis and A. Wells, The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Das Licht (1)

H. Krefft and K. Larche, "High pressure mercury lamps with phosphors," Das Licht 8, 133 (1938).

Farben Zeit. (1)

A. Eibner, "Lithopone," Farben Zeit. 30, 2600 (1925).

Helv. Chim. Acta. (2)

Karl Gloor, "Photolysis with zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 853 (1937).

Emil Baur, "The chemistry of phosphorescence of zinc sulfide," Helv. Chim. Acta. 20, 878 (1937).

J. App. Phys. (1)

F. Seitz, "The darkening of materials by light," J. App. Phys. 13, 639 (1942).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. T. Gordon, F. Seitz, and F. Quinlan, "The blackening of zinc sulphide phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 7, 4 (1939).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. J. O'Brien, "A study of lithopone," J. Phys. Chem. 19, 113 (1915).

J.A.I.E.E. (1)

H. C. Rentschler, "An ultraviolet light meter," J.A.I.E.E. 49, 113 (1930).

J.I.E.E. (1)

L. J. Davis, H. R. Ruff, and W. J. Scott, "Fluorescent lamps," Part II, J.I.E.E. 89, 447 (1942).

Trans. I.E.S. (3)

G. E. Inman, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 65 (1939). H. C. Froelich, "Chemical and physical stability of silicate phosphors," Trans. E.C.S. 87, 365 (1945).

A. B. O'Day and R. F. Cissell, "Fluorescent lamps and their applications," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 1165 (1939). A. D. S. Atkinson, Fluorescent Lighting (George Newnese, Ltd., England, 1944). Farrington Daniels, Chemical Kinetics (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1938).

J. W. Marden and G. Meister, "Effects of impurities on fluorescent compounds," Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

Other (4)

C. Ellis and A. Wells, The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Preparation of Phosphors: zinc silicate—Brit. Pat. 457,126 Nov. 23, 1936; magnesium tungstate—Brit. Pat. 469,732 July 27, 1937; zinc beryllium silicate—U. S. Pat. 2,103,085; calcium tungstate—Brit. Pat. 494,299 Oct. 20 (1938); calcium cerium phosphate—U. S. Pat. 2,306,567.

G. K. Rollefson and M. Burton, Photochemistry (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1942). W. A. Noyes and P. A. Leighton, The Photochemistry of Gases (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941).

Protective and Decorative Coatings, Vol. III, J. Mattiello, editor (John Wiley & Son, Inc., New York, 1943), Chapter 22A, p. 68.

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