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References

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  1. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Maurice Ewing, Allyn Vine, and J. L. Worzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am.36, 307 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. E. K. Middleton, Visibility in Meteorology (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1941).
  4. Wilson M. Powell and George L. Clarke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. U. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1942), pp. 724–727.
  6. I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  7. Reference 5, Fig. 20, p. 85.
  8. I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp. (1932).
  9. K. R. Ramanathan, Phil. Mag. 46, 543 (1923). See also other work quoted in reference 5, p. 87.
    [Crossref]
  10. G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  11. Reference 5, p. 88.

1945 (1)

1939 (2)

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1939).
[Crossref]

G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

1923 (1)

K. R. Ramanathan, Phil. Mag. 46, 543 (1923). See also other work quoted in reference 5, p. 87.
[Crossref]

Clarke, G. L.

Clarke, George L.

Ewing, Maurice

Maurice Ewing, Allyn Vine, and J. L. Worzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am.36, 307 (1946).
[Crossref]

Fleming, R. H.

H. U. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1942), pp. 724–727.

Hulburt, E. O.

James, H. R.

Johnson, M. W.

H. U. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1942), pp. 724–727.

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1939).
[Crossref]

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp. (1932).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Visibility in Meteorology (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1941).

Powell, Wilson M.

Ramanathan, K. R.

K. R. Ramanathan, Phil. Mag. 46, 543 (1923). See also other work quoted in reference 5, p. 87.
[Crossref]

Sverdrup, H. U.

H. U. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1942), pp. 724–727.

Vine, Allyn

Maurice Ewing, Allyn Vine, and J. L. Worzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am.36, 307 (1946).
[Crossref]

Westendorp, W. F.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1939).
[Crossref]

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp. (1932).

Worzel, J. L.

Maurice Ewing, Allyn Vine, and J. L. Worzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am.36, 307 (1946).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Phil. Mag. (1)

K. R. Ramanathan, Phil. Mag. 46, 543 (1923). See also other work quoted in reference 5, p. 87.
[Crossref]

Physics (1)

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1939).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

Reference 5, Fig. 20, p. 85.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp. (1932).

Reference 5, p. 88.

H. U. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1942), pp. 724–727.

Maurice Ewing, Allyn Vine, and J. L. Worzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am.36, 307 (1946).
[Crossref]

W. E. K. Middleton, Visibility in Meteorology (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1941).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Visual ranges and (b) isothermals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular scattering function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visual range υs. candlepower of source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscope for observing scattering particles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Visual ranges for a light source and for a Secchi disk.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E d = 3.5 × 10 9 B 0 1 2 lumen / cm 2 .
B ( θ ) = B 0 f ( θ ) .
E d = I s 2 e ( α + σ ) s .
E = I s 2 e α s .
E s = E E d = 1 s 2 e α s ( 1 e σ s ) .
E s = 2 π 0 π / 2 B ( θ ) sin θ d θ .
I s 2 e α s ( 1 e σ s ) = 2 π B 0 0 π / 2 f ( θ ) sin θ d θ .
0 π / 2 f ( θ ) sin θ d θ = 0.079.
B 0 = 6.4 π I s 2 e α s ( 1 e σ s ) .
I s 2 e ( α + σ ) s = 3.5 × 10 9 [ 6.4 π I s 2 e α s ( 1 e σ s ) ] 1 2 .
I 1 2 s e { ( α / 2 ) + σ } s = ( 6.4 π ) 1 2 × 3.5 × 10 9 = 5.5 × 10 9 lumen 1 2 cm 1 ,