Abstract

There is described a simple photoelectric spectrophotometer, developed to determine the precipitable water in a vertical column of the atmosphere. A transmission replica grating is used as the dispersing element and an infra-red-sensitive photo-tube as the energy receiver. The photo-tube current is amplified by a negative feed-back d.c. amplifier and is read either by means of a 500 microampere ammeter or recorded by a high speed potentiometer recorder. Measurements are obtained by comparing the radiant flux in the 0.94μ water vapor absorption band with that at 1.01μ where no absorption occurs. A single-mirror heliostat is utilized to keep the spectrophotometer focused on the sun. An approximate calibration was obtained by plotting the spectrophotometer ratios against the total precipitable water values in a vertical column of the atmosphere as calculated from radiosonde moisture data.

© 1945 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Fowle, “The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. E. Fowle, “The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.  47 (1904), Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 2, Part 1.
  3. Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, “A Spectroscopic Hygrometer,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).
  4. A. F. Moore, “Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection89, No. 4.
  5. Irving F. Hand, “An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration,” Monthly Weather Rev.95–98 (April, 1940).
    [Crossref]
  6. Sleator and Phelps, “The Structure of the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. M. Elsasser, “On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation,” Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. M. Elsasser, “New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor,” Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).
    [Crossref]
  9. Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  10. Adel and Lampland, “A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. W. Vance, “An Improved Vacuum Tube Microammeter,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).
    [Crossref]

1943 (1)

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, “A Spectroscopic Hygrometer,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

1940 (1)

Irving F. Hand, “An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration,” Monthly Weather Rev.95–98 (April, 1940).
[Crossref]

1938 (2)

W. M. Elsasser, “New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor,” Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).
[Crossref]

Adel and Lampland, “A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

W. M. Elsasser, “On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation,” Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

A. W. Vance, “An Improved Vacuum Tube Microammeter,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

Sleator and Phelps, “The Structure of the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
[Crossref]

1912 (1)

F. E. Fowle, “The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).
[Crossref]

1904 (1)

F. E. Fowle, “The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.  47 (1904), Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 2, Part 1.

Adel,

Adel and Lampland, “A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
[Crossref]

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
[Crossref]

Barker,

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
[Crossref]

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser, “New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor,” Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).
[Crossref]

W. M. Elsasser, “On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation,” Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).
[Crossref]

Foskett, Laurence W.

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, “A Spectroscopic Hygrometer,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Foster, Norman B.

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, “A Spectroscopic Hygrometer,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Fowle, F. E.

F. E. Fowle, “The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).
[Crossref]

F. E. Fowle, “The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.  47 (1904), Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 2, Part 1.

Hand, Irving F.

Irving F. Hand, “An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration,” Monthly Weather Rev.95–98 (April, 1940).
[Crossref]

Lampland,

Adel and Lampland, “A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
[Crossref]

Moore, A. F.

A. F. Moore, “Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection89, No. 4.

Phelps,

Sleator and Phelps, “The Structure of the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
[Crossref]

Sleator,

Sleator and Phelps, “The Structure of the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
[Crossref]

Slipher,

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
[Crossref]

Vance, A. W.

A. W. Vance, “An Improved Vacuum Tube Microammeter,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (3)

F. E. Fowle, “The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).
[Crossref]

Sleator and Phelps, “The Structure of the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor,” Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
[Crossref]

Adel and Lampland, “A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. (1)

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, “A Spectroscopic Hygrometer,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Monthly Weather Rev. (3)

W. M. Elsasser, “On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation,” Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).
[Crossref]

W. M. Elsasser, “New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor,” Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).
[Crossref]

Irving F. Hand, “An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration,” Monthly Weather Rev.95–98 (April, 1940).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, “The Absorption of Sunlight by the Earth’s Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

A. W. Vance, “An Improved Vacuum Tube Microammeter,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).
[Crossref]

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1)

F. E. Fowle, “The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.  47 (1904), Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 2, Part 1.

Other (1)

A. F. Moore, “Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection89, No. 4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption band.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of spectrophotometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Picture of mounting.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrogram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Record of energies.

Fig. 7a
Fig. 7a

Day’s record of energies.

Fig. 7b
Fig. 7b

Day’s record of energies.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calibration curve.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Reduction of water vapor observations by means of the calibration curve, Washington, D. C.

Equations (1)

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A = [ 2 ( a 0 ) 1 2 / Δ ν ] [ Σ ( i 0 ) 1 2 ] ( p / p 0 ) 1 2 ( T 0 / T ) 1 4 ( X ) 1 2 ,