Abstract

There is described a simple photoelectric spectrophotometer, developed to determine the precipitable water in a vertical column of the atmosphere. A transmission replica grating is used as the dispersing element and an infra-red-sensitive photo-tube as the energy receiver. The photo-tube current is amplified by a negative feed-back d.c. amplifier and is read either by means of a 500 microampere ammeter or recorded by a high speed potentiometer recorder. Measurements are obtained by comparing the radiant flux in the 0.94µ water vapor absorption band with that at 1.01µ where no absorption occurs. A single-mirror heliostat is utilized to keep the spectrophotometer focused on the sun. An approximate calibration was obtained by plotting the spectrophotometer ratios against the total precipitable water values in a vertical column of the atmosphere as calculated from radiosonde moisture data.

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  1. F. E. Fowle, "The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor," Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).
  2. F. E. Fowle, "The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 47 (1904), Vol. 2, Part 1.
  3. Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, "A Spectroscopic Hygrometer," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).
  4. A. F. Moore, "Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 89, No. 4.
  5. Irving F. Hand, "An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration," Monthly Weather Rev. 95–98 (April, 1940).
  6. Sleator and Phelps, "The Structure of the Near Infra-red Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor," Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).
  7. W. M. Elsasser, "On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation," Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).
  8. W. M. Elsasser, "New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor," Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).
  9. Adel, Slipher, and Barker, "The Absorption of Sun-light by the Earth's Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum," Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).
  10. Adel and Lampland, "A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth's Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).
  11. A. W. Vance, "An Improved Vacuum Tube Micro-ammeter," Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).

1938 (1)

Adel and Lampland, "A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth's Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).

1935 (1)

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, "The Absorption of Sun-light by the Earth's Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum," Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).

1904 (1)

F. E. Fowle, "The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 47 (1904), Vol. 2, Part 1.

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser, "On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation," Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).

W. M. Elsasser, "New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor," Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).

Foskett, Laurence W.

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, "A Spectroscopic Hygrometer," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Foster, Norman B.

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, "A Spectroscopic Hygrometer," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Fowle, F. E.

F. E. Fowle, "The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor," Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).

F. E. Fowle, "The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 47 (1904), Vol. 2, Part 1.

Hand, Irving F.

Irving F. Hand, "An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration," Monthly Weather Rev. 95–98 (April, 1940).

Moore, A. F.

A. F. Moore, "Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 89, No. 4.

Vance, A. W.

A. W. Vance, "An Improved Vacuum Tube Micro-ammeter," Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).

Astrophys. J. (3)

F. E. Fowle, "The Spectroscopic Determination of Aqueous Vapor," Astrophys. J. 35, No. 3, 149–162 (April, 1912).

Sleator and Phelps, "The Structure of the Near Infra-red Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor," Astrophys. J. 62, No. 1, 28–48 (July, 1924).

Adel and Lampland, "A New Band in the Absorption Spectrum of the Earth's Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 87, 198–203 (1938).

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. (1)

Laurence W. Foskett and Norman B. Foster, "A Spectroscopic Hygrometer," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 24, 146–153 (April, 1943).

Monthly Weather Rev. (2)

W. M. Elsasser, "On Some Properties of the Water-Vapor Spectrum and Their Relations to Atmospheric Radiation," Monthly Weather Rev. 65, No. 9, 323–326 (September, 1937).

W. M. Elsasser, "New Values for Infrared Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Water Vapor," Monthly Weather Rev. 66, No. 6, 175–178 (June, 1938).

Phys. Rev. (1)

Adel, Slipher, and Barker, "The Absorption of Sun-light by the Earth's Atmosphere in the Remote Infrared Region of the Spectrum," Phys. Rev. 47, 580–586 (1935).

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

A. W. Vance, "An Improved Vacuum Tube Micro-ammeter," Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 489–493 (December, 1936).

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1)

F. E. Fowle, "The Absorption of Water Vapor in the Infrared Solar Spectrum," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 47 (1904), Vol. 2, Part 1.

Other (2)

A. F. Moore, "Scouting for a Site for a Solar-Radiation Station," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 89, No. 4.

Irving F. Hand, "An Instrument for the Spectroscopic Determination of Precipitable Atmospheric Water Vapor and Its Calibration," Monthly Weather Rev. 95–98 (April, 1940).

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