Abstract

The Ishihara test for color-blindness, taken as a representative type of polychromatic tests, fails to give more than a superficial evaluation of the state of an observer’s color vision. It can be utilized as a good rough screening test for red-green color blindness, but in so doing most of the plates could be discarded. The results obtained are dependent to a large extent upon the illuminant used, and this fact militates against the deuteranomalous observer. The test gives neither an adequate qualitative (type of defect) nor quantitative (extent of defect) diagnosis, and may give a wrong diagnosis. Results obtained by this test should be discounted unless verified by other modern types of tests.

© 1945 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Handaya, Tokyo, Hongo Harukicho, 1917).
  2. J. H. Clark, “The Ishihara test for color blindness,” Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 5, 269–276 (July, 1924).
  3. J. von Kries “Ueber Farbensysteme,” Zeits. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinn. 13, 241–324 (1897).
  4. S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Tokyo, Kanehara, 1925), 5th Ed.
  5. E. Rabkin, Polychromatic Plates for Testing Colour Vision (Kharkov, State Medical Publishing House of the USSR, 1939), 2nd Ed.
  6. American Optical Company, Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates for Testing Color Perception (Beck Engraving Company, Philadelphia and New York, 1940).
  7. D. Farnsworth, “Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568–578 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. H. Hardy, “Single judgment test for red-green discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 512–514 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. A. Nagel, “Zwei Apparate für die augenärztliche Funktionsprüfung. Adaptometer und kleines Spektral-photometer (Anomaloskop), Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 201–222 (1907).
  10. L. H. Hardy and G. Rand, “Recent developments in color vision testing,” Am. Acad. Ophth., Outlines of Instructional Courses, 1944, Graduate Lecture, Continuous course No. 6 and 7.

1944 (1)

L. H. Hardy and G. Rand, “Recent developments in color vision testing,” Am. Acad. Ophth., Outlines of Instructional Courses, 1944, Graduate Lecture, Continuous course No. 6 and 7.

1943 (2)

1924 (1)

J. H. Clark, “The Ishihara test for color blindness,” Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 5, 269–276 (July, 1924).

1907 (1)

W. A. Nagel, “Zwei Apparate für die augenärztliche Funktionsprüfung. Adaptometer und kleines Spektral-photometer (Anomaloskop), Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 201–222 (1907).

1897 (1)

J. von Kries “Ueber Farbensysteme,” Zeits. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinn. 13, 241–324 (1897).

Clark, J. H.

J. H. Clark, “The Ishihara test for color blindness,” Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 5, 269–276 (July, 1924).

Farnsworth, D.

Hardy, L. H.

L. H. Hardy and G. Rand, “Recent developments in color vision testing,” Am. Acad. Ophth., Outlines of Instructional Courses, 1944, Graduate Lecture, Continuous course No. 6 and 7.

L. H. Hardy, “Single judgment test for red-green discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 512–514 (1943).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Tokyo, Kanehara, 1925), 5th Ed.

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Handaya, Tokyo, Hongo Harukicho, 1917).

Nagel, W. A.

W. A. Nagel, “Zwei Apparate für die augenärztliche Funktionsprüfung. Adaptometer und kleines Spektral-photometer (Anomaloskop), Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 201–222 (1907).

Rabkin, E.

E. Rabkin, Polychromatic Plates for Testing Colour Vision (Kharkov, State Medical Publishing House of the USSR, 1939), 2nd Ed.

Rand, G.

L. H. Hardy and G. Rand, “Recent developments in color vision testing,” Am. Acad. Ophth., Outlines of Instructional Courses, 1944, Graduate Lecture, Continuous course No. 6 and 7.

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries “Ueber Farbensysteme,” Zeits. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinn. 13, 241–324 (1897).

Am. Acad. Ophth. (1)

L. H. Hardy and G. Rand, “Recent developments in color vision testing,” Am. Acad. Ophth., Outlines of Instructional Courses, 1944, Graduate Lecture, Continuous course No. 6 and 7.

Am. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. H. Clark, “The Ishihara test for color blindness,” Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 5, 269–276 (July, 1924).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Zeits. f. Augenheilk. (1)

W. A. Nagel, “Zwei Apparate für die augenärztliche Funktionsprüfung. Adaptometer und kleines Spektral-photometer (Anomaloskop), Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 201–222 (1907).

Zeits. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinn. (1)

J. von Kries “Ueber Farbensysteme,” Zeits. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinn. 13, 241–324 (1897).

Other (4)

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Tokyo, Kanehara, 1925), 5th Ed.

E. Rabkin, Polychromatic Plates for Testing Colour Vision (Kharkov, State Medical Publishing House of the USSR, 1939), 2nd Ed.

American Optical Company, Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates for Testing Color Perception (Beck Engraving Company, Philadelphia and New York, 1940).

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Handaya, Tokyo, Hongo Harukicho, 1917).

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Tables (4)

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Table I Analysis of individual plates. Percentage of each type of color defective subject and of the low normals passing each plate of the Ishihara test, fifth edition.

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Table II Significance of performance score. Showing for each type of color defective subject and for the low normals (a) the average performance score achieved by each group; (b) the median or middle score for each group; and (c) the range of scores from lowest to highest achieved by the individuals within each group. Performance score is percentage of the 12 plates to which correct responses were given.

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Table III Distribution of performance scores. Percentage of each type of color defective subject and of the low normals having different ranges of performance score on Ishihara test (fifth edition).

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Table IV Differential classification of deuteranopia and protanopia. Analysis of the value of Plates 12 and 13 (Series 6) as a means of differentiating between deuteranopic and protanopic types of red-green defective subjects.