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  1. D. L. Drabkin, in O. Glasser, Medical Physics (The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1944), p. 967.
  2. D. L. Drabkin, “Spectroscopy in science and industry,” Proceedings Fifth Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1937 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1938), p. 102.
  3. D. L. Drabkin, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1939 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1940), p. 85.
  4. G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  5. The Varitran transformer was calibrated to deliver 0.8 ampere to the discharge tube. All parts of the power supply should be grounded thoroughly.
  6. H. F. Kurtz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 495 (1926).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. F. Young and W. C. Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 497 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Barth, Zeits. f. Physik 87, 399 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. B. Penick, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 115 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  11. To obtain stable operating conditions with amplifiers of this type, the battery (B1, Fig. 3) should be connected into the amplifier circuit at least 6 hours, preferably longer (24 hours), before use in measurement.
  12. In the notation ϵ(c=1 mM per liter, d=1 cm), ϵ=(1/(c×d) ×log I0/I), where the concentration c is expressed in mM per liter, the depth d in cm, the intensity of incident light (passing through solvent alone) I0 is 1.0, and the intensity of transmitted light (passing through the solution) I is expressed as a fraction of unity. In this manuscript the symbol ϵ, defined as above, will be used. By definition our ϵ values are equivalent to molecular extinction coefficients×103.
  13. A. Hantzsch, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 72, 362 (1910).
  14. H. von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 100, 208 (1922).

1937 (1)

T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. B. Penick, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 115 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

G. Barth, Zeits. f. Physik 87, 399 (1934).
[Crossref]

1931 (2)

1926 (1)

H. F. Kurtz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 495 (1926).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

H. von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 100, 208 (1922).

1910 (1)

A. Hantzsch, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 72, 362 (1910).

Barth, G.

G. Barth, Zeits. f. Physik 87, 399 (1934).
[Crossref]

Drabkin, D. L.

D. L. Drabkin, “Spectroscopy in science and industry,” Proceedings Fifth Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1937 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1938), p. 102.

D. L. Drabkin, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1939 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1940), p. 85.

D. L. Drabkin, in O. Glasser, Medical Physics (The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1944), p. 967.

Glasser, O.

D. L. Drabkin, in O. Glasser, Medical Physics (The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1944), p. 967.

Hantzsch, A.

A. Hantzsch, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 72, 362 (1910).

Hogness, T. R.

T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
[Crossref]

Kistiakowsky, G. B.

G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, H. F.

H. F. Kurtz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 495 (1926).
[Crossref]

Penick, D. B.

D. B. Penick, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 115 (1935).
[Crossref]

Pierce, W. C.

Sidwell, A. E.

T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
[Crossref]

Siedentopf, K.

H. von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 100, 208 (1922).

von Halban, H.

H. von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 100, 208 (1922).

Young, T. F.

Zscheile, F. P.

T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

H. F. Kurtz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 495 (1926).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. R. Hogness, F. P. Zscheile, and A. E. Sidwell, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 379 (1937).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (2)

G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931).
[Crossref]

D. B. Penick, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 115 (1935).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Physik (1)

G. Barth, Zeits. f. Physik 87, 399 (1934).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. physik. Chemie (2)

A. Hantzsch, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 72, 362 (1910).

H. von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 100, 208 (1922).

Other (6)

To obtain stable operating conditions with amplifiers of this type, the battery (B1, Fig. 3) should be connected into the amplifier circuit at least 6 hours, preferably longer (24 hours), before use in measurement.

In the notation ϵ(c=1 mM per liter, d=1 cm), ϵ=(1/(c×d) ×log I0/I), where the concentration c is expressed in mM per liter, the depth d in cm, the intensity of incident light (passing through solvent alone) I0 is 1.0, and the intensity of transmitted light (passing through the solution) I is expressed as a fraction of unity. In this manuscript the symbol ϵ, defined as above, will be used. By definition our ϵ values are equivalent to molecular extinction coefficients×103.

The Varitran transformer was calibrated to deliver 0.8 ampere to the discharge tube. All parts of the power supply should be grounded thoroughly.

D. L. Drabkin, in O. Glasser, Medical Physics (The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1944), p. 967.

D. L. Drabkin, “Spectroscopy in science and industry,” Proceedings Fifth Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1937 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1938), p. 102.

D. L. Drabkin, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications, 1939 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1940), p. 85.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the spectrophotometric assembly. The electrical parts (except the meters) of the amplifier are mounted on a Bakelite panel within the welded cadmium-plated steel box (wall= 3 16 in., the front (center of Fig.) and rear covers of which are removable. Knobs [engraved with numbers corresponding to the resistances employed (Fig. 3)] are connected through the front steel panel to their respective controls by means of Bakelite rods with Sylphon bellows (No. 3912–14, Fulton Sylphon Company) attached (reference 3). This method of mounting affords free operation and utmost shielding. The Bakelite dial (center) is engraved in steps of 500 ohms, based upon calibration of variable resistor, R4 (0–10,000 ohms), which controls the sensitivity of the galvanometer. The Bakelite dial (above and left of center) shows the calibration in steps of 50 ohms of variable resistor, R1 (0–1000 ohms), of the included potentiometer circuit, used for calibration, occasional checks of sensitivity, etc. The switches S1 to S6 correspond to those shown in Fig. 3. The galvanometer leads, insulated by enclosure in waxed fish-spine beads, are carried through the panel (upper center) in BX cables.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photo-diagrams illustrating the mounting of the photo-cell (G-M Visitron 1038-A), the electrometer tube (Western Electric D-96475), and selected noise-free resistor, R0 (S.S. White Company) in the evacuated steel cylinder. Small diagonal holes, bored through the four 1 2 -in.-thick Ebonite spacers, prevent collapse upon evacuation. Air-tight connections are insured by the use of pure gum rubber band gaskets for the 1 4 -in. steel end plates of the cylinder and for the brass machined frame of the crystal quartz window, located (when in working position) on the under side of the cylinder, which fits telescopically into a steel sleeve (lower right). Movement of the cylinder is by rack and pinion, a stroke of 7 cm allowing alignment of the quartz window over one optical path or the other. “Converted” spark plugs (turned down, nickel spotted on, heavily coated with silver, and copper-soldered) are fixed into the right end plate by means of gaskets, and then coated with Glyptal. Through these converted plugs six leads (four from the electrometer tube, one from the photo-cell, and one grid bias from R0) emerge to the electrical circuit, and a seventh carries the ground lead. Isolation from the electrical circuit is provided since insulation better than 1010 ohms is assured by this arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the amplification circuit. Resistances, in ohms: R0=4.85×1010, R1=0–1000 (calibrated in steps of 50), R2=0–20,000, R3=0–10,000, R4=0–10,000 (calibrated in steps of 500), R5=0–20,000, R6=0–20,000, R7=0–2,000, R8=0–20 (set and fixed at 11.1), R9=20, R10=0–7, R11=0–2, R12=0–50, R13=10, R14=10,000, R15=100,000, and R16=80,000 (10,000+70,000). R2+R3=Rp, and R5+R6+R7+R12=Rn. The variable resistors have friction chucks on shafts to prevent accidental changes of settings. During measurements adjustment is usually limited to R7 and R12. Switches: S1, “anti-capacity” switch from 90-volt dry cells, B2 (mounted in aluminum receptacle on Bakelite control panel within steel box), to photo-cell; S2, “anti-capacity” switch to 1.5-volt “standard” dry cell, B3 (also mounted on Bakelite panel) in the included calibrating potentiometer circuit; S3, S5, and S6, special low resistance platinum-mercury switches (designed by Dr. G. L. Locher) in the potentiometer and galvanometer circuits; S4, double pole, double throw, knife-edge switch from the power supply of the amplifier, B1, a high ampere-hour capacity, 12-volt storage battery (housed in a separate steel box, Fig. 1), to the circuit or to a battery charger. Meters : Calibrated Weston meters, connected in the circuit to the D-96475 tube, for measuring, respectively, the plate current ip, in microamperes, the space-charge or neutral grid current in, in milliamperes, and the filament current if in milliamperes, and the voltmeter to B1. Circuit constants: Employing the customary symbols, with if=270 ma, Eg (control grid voltage)=3.0 v, Ep (plate voltage)=En (space-charge grid voltage)=3.99 and the photo-cell dark, the circuit constants observed at balance are: Ept (measured between a and c)=5.36 v, Ent (measured between a and d)=8.78 v, Rp=11,500 ohms, Rn=9000 ohms, ip≌114 μA, and in≌0.50 ma. Thus, at balance, (EptipRp)=(EntinRn)≌4.0 v.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical characteristics of quartz monochromator.

Tables Icon

Table II ϵ values on K2CrO4 in 0.05N KOH*, and comparison of transmission measurements on a test glass (Wratten filter 18A).