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References

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  1. L. T. Troland, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 2, 23–48 (1921) esp. 43.
  2. G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 488–492 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 714–721 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. A. Fry, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 798–804 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. A. Houston, Vision and Color Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1932), pp. 223–234.
  6. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168–173 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359–374 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. B115, 49–87 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” Medical Research Council, (1935).
  10. D. B. Judd, “The color perceptions of protanopic and deuteranopic observers,” paper presented at the Winter Meeting of the Optical Society of America (1944).
  11. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–93 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 159–166 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 260–269 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385–422 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 14, 41–57 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 675–679 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. McL. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. T. Troland, Psycho-physiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. 2, p. 180.
  21. H. Helson, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).
    [Crossref]

1944 (1)

1943 (3)

1942 (2)

1938 (1)

H. Helson, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–93 (1937).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 14, 41–57 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (3)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. B115, 49–87 (1934).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 798–804 (1934).
[Crossref]

1933 (3)

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 488–492 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 714–721 (1933).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359–374 (1933).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

D. McL. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[Crossref]

1921 (1)

L. T. Troland, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 2, 23–48 (1921) esp. 43.

Adams, E. Q.

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 159–166 (1944).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 798–804 (1934).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 488–492 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 714–721 (1933).
[Crossref]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–93 (1937).
[Crossref]

Helson, H.

H. Helson, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).
[Crossref]

Houston, R. A.

R. A. Houston, Vision and Color Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1932), pp. 223–234.

Judd, D. B.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385–422 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 14, 41–57 (1935).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359–374 (1933).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “The color perceptions of protanopic and deuteranopic observers,” paper presented at the Winter Meeting of the Optical Society of America (1944).

MacAdam, D. L.

Moon, P.

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[Crossref]

F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” Medical Research Council, (1935).

Purdy, D. McL.

D. McL. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[Crossref]

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–93 (1937).
[Crossref]

Spencer, D. E.

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 2, 23–48 (1921) esp. 43.

L. T. Troland, Psycho-physiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. 2, p. 180.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. B115, 49–87 (1934).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

L. T. Troland, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 2, 23–48 (1921) esp. 43.

Am. J. Psychol. (3)

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 488–492 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 714–721 (1933).
[Crossref]

D. McL. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[Crossref]

J. Exper. Psychol. (2)

G. A. Fry, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 798–804 (1934).
[Crossref]

H. Helson, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–93 (1937).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 14, 41–57 (1935).
[Crossref]

Phys. Soc. London (1)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. B115, 49–87 (1934).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” Medical Research Council, (1935).

D. B. Judd, “The color perceptions of protanopic and deuteranopic observers,” paper presented at the Winter Meeting of the Optical Society of America (1944).

R. A. Houston, Vision and Color Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1932), pp. 223–234.

L. T. Troland, Psycho-physiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. 2, p. 180.

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Figures (24)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The principle of frequency modulation of impulses in a photo-receptor axon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of hue on the type of modulation pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A “constant brightness” color mixture diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The I.C.I. color mixture diagram inverted. This is also a perspective drawing of the uv diagram in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mixture coefficients, u′ and v′, of the theoretical modulating substances plotted against wave-length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Loci of white, spectral, and purple colors on a uv′ diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the color mixture coefficients of Pitt’s average deuteranope and average protanope with the calculated mixture coefficients of a trichromat deprived of his R-G apparatus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wave-length discrimination data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The effect of changing the position of U on the X axis upon the characteristics of the u function.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Method of calculating Δu from Δs for points on the red end of the spectral locus.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Δv as a function of v.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Δu as a function of u.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Moon-Spencer type of uniform chromaticity diagram, based on the “constant brightness” color mixture diagram in Fig. 3.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

MacAdam’s ellipses plotted on a uv″ diagram.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The effect of chromatic aberration on the discrimination between mixtures of red and blue.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The effect of chromatic aberration on the discrimination between mixtures of blue and violet.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Δv″/Δλ and Δu″/Δλ as functions of wave-length.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Theoretical lines of constant hue based on the assumption that straight lines radiating from the white point on the uv″ diagram in Fig. 13 represent constant hue.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

The relation between Judd’s uniform chromaticity diagram and a perspective drawing of the uv diagram.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Comparison of the Judd type and the Moon-Spencer type of uniform chromaticity diagram. A is a modification of the diagram in Fig. 19 and B is a modification of the diagram in Fig. 13. The v-coordinate lines are the same for the two graphs, but in A the u-coordinate lines converge at U and in B the u-coordinate lines are parallel but not uniformly spaced.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Munsell colors at level 5 plotted on a uv″ diagram.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Munsell colors at level plotted on a collapsed uv diagram. This is equivalent to Adams’ (X/Y) (Z/Y) diagram.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

The relation between u″ and u.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

The relation between v″ and v.

Equations (34)

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u = 1 3.85 ( x - 0.173 y + 1.70 ) ,
v = 1 172 ( 1 - x y - 1 ) = 1 172 ( z y ) .
Y 1 Y 2 = v 2 - v m v m - v 1 = u 2 - u m u m - u 1 .
v m = v 1 Y 1 + v 2 Y 2 Y 1 + Y 2             and             u m = u 1 Y 1 + u 2 Y 2 Y 1 + Y 2 .
Y m = Y 1 + Y 2 ,
v m Y m = v 1 Y 1 + v 2 Y 2
u m Y m = u 1 Y 1 + u 2 Y 2 .
v m = Σ v Y Y m ,             u m = Σ u Y Y m ,             Y m = Σ Y .
v m = 1 Y m 0 E y ¯ v d λ ,             u m = 1 Y m 0 E y ¯ u d λ
Y m = 0 E y ¯ d λ .
B = Y ϕ B v ; S = Y ϕ S ( 1 - v ) ; R = Y ϕ R u ; G = Y ϕ G ( 1 - u ) .
v = 1 1 + S B ( ϕ B ϕ S )             and             u = 1 1 + G R ( ϕ R ϕ G ) .
v = B B + S = 1 1 + ϕ S ϕ B ( 1 - v v )
u = R R + G = 1 1 + ϕ G ϕ R ( 1 - u u ) ,
v = 75 74 + ( 1 / v )             and             u = u .
v = 1 1 + 10 K ( λ - C ) .
b = 1 1 + ( v - v 460 v 650 - v ) ( ϕ 460 ϕ 650 ) .
Δ u = Δ x 3.85 y ,
Δ x = Δ s ( sin 45 ° tan α + cos 45 ° ) = 0.707 ( 1 tan α + 1 ) Δ s ,
Δ u = 0.1835 y ( x - 0.173 y + 1 ) Δ s .
Δ v = 1 N ϕ S ϕ B [ 1 + v ( ϕ B ϕ S - 1 ) ] 2 .
Δ u = 0.00085 + 0.035 ( u - 0.58 ) 2 .
u = 0 u d u 0.00085 + 0.035 ( u - 0.58 ) 2 ,
v = N ϕ B ϕ S 0 v [ 1 + v ( ϕ B ϕ S - 1 ) ] - 2 d v .
u = 240 + 183 tan - 1 6.4 ( u - 0.58 ) ,
u = u = R R + G , u = 240 + 183 tan - 1 6.4 ( R R + G - 0.58 ) .
v = N 1 1 + ( 1 - v v ) ϕ S ϕ B = N v = N ( B B + S ) .
N = [ ( u 2 - u 1 ) 2 + ( v 2 - v 1 ) 2 ] 1 2 .
N = [ ( d u d λ ) 2 + ( d v d λ ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
Δ λ = 1 [ ( d u d λ ) 2 + ( d v d λ ) 2 ] 1 2 .
d v d v = N
d v d λ = ( log 10 e K ) - 1 [ 10 K ( λ - C ) + 10 K ( C - λ ) + 2 ] - 1 .
d v d λ = K N log 10 e [ 10 K ( λ - C ) + 10 K ( C - λ ) + 2 ] .
v = 1 1 + 1 - v v ( v a - 1 v a ) .