Abstract

A spectrographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of Pb, Fe, Ni, Sn, Bi, and Sb in 70/30 brass and admiralty brass is described in detail. The source is a 14-ampere low voltage d.c. arc of conventional type. A 50-mg pellet sample is arced to extinction in a cupped graphite electrode of specified dimensions. The “intermediate mode” of illumination obtained by focusing the source on the collimator lens is used. A radial sector disk placed at the slit is used to regulate the effective exposure at the plate. The step sector method of plate calibration is used. The source for the calibration is a 4-ampere d.c. arc on 316 diameter copper electrodes. The calibration curve on the copper line 2882.934A is used for a wave-length region 2590A–3100A. The copper reference line of 2858.734A is chosen for comparison with the respective impurity lines. Working curves are given for the determination of Pb, Fe, Ni, Sn, and Sb in the range of 0.01–0.10 percent and Bi in the range of 0.0004–0.010 percent.

© 1944 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. A. Lomakin, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 187, 75–96 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kaiser, Proceedings of the Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940), pp. 77–81.
  3. N. S. Sventitskii, Zavodskaya Lab. 7, 1371–8 (1938).
  4. We. Gerlach and E. Riedl, Metallwirtschaft 12, 401–5 (1933).
  5. E. A. Ratsbaum, Zavodskaya Lab. 6, 191–5 (1937).
  6. R. Breckpot, Chim. et Ind. 31, 220–9 (1934).
  7. R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).
  8. H. W. Brownsdon and E. H. S. Van Someren, J. Inst. Metals 46, 97–113 (1931).
  9. D. M. Smith, Metallurgical Analysis by the Spectrograph (British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, London, 1933).
  10. F. G. Barker, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 139, 211–55 (1939).
  11. C. W. Hill and G. P. Luckey, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. 60, 342–353 (1919).
  12. M. Milbourn, J. Inst. Metals 55, 275–82 (1934).
  13. Wm. E. Milligan and Walter D. France, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 32, 24–27 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Walter D. France, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 681–685 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. R. Harrison, Metals and Alloys 7, 290–296 (1936).
  16. Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 31, 365–390 (1917).
  17. Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 37, 665–706 (1920).
  18. N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. G. MacPherson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 189–194 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles B55, 173–194 (1935).
  21. B. Park, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 6, 189–190 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Park and E. J. Lewis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7, 182–3 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. Leichtle, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis, A.S.T.M. Bull. PP 49 (March, 1941).
  24. R. Breckpot and L. Lialine, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).
  25. W. P. Brode, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis (A.S.T.M., 1935), Vol. 35, Part II, pp. 1–6.
  26. Walter Clark, Photo Technique, pp. 54–58 (Oct.1940).
  27. Carl King, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 112–115 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables, with Intensities in Arc, Spark or Discharge Tube (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).
  29. Standards for Copper and Copper Alloys (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, 1942), pp. 60–65.

1942 (2)

1941 (1)

Wm. E. Milligan and Walter D. France, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 32, 24–27 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1940 (2)

Walter Clark, Photo Technique, pp. 54–58 (Oct.1940).

H. G. MacPherson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 189–194 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

F. G. Barker, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 139, 211–55 (1939).

1938 (1)

N. S. Sventitskii, Zavodskaya Lab. 7, 1371–8 (1938).

1937 (1)

E. A. Ratsbaum, Zavodskaya Lab. 6, 191–5 (1937).

1936 (1)

G. R. Harrison, Metals and Alloys 7, 290–296 (1936).

1935 (3)

N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
[CrossRef]

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles B55, 173–194 (1935).

B. Park and E. J. Lewis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7, 182–3 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1934 (5)

R. Breckpot and L. Lialine, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

B. Park, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 6, 189–190 (1934).
[CrossRef]

M. Milbourn, J. Inst. Metals 55, 275–82 (1934).

R. Breckpot, Chim. et Ind. 31, 220–9 (1934).

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

1933 (1)

We. Gerlach and E. Riedl, Metallwirtschaft 12, 401–5 (1933).

1931 (1)

H. W. Brownsdon and E. H. S. Van Someren, J. Inst. Metals 46, 97–113 (1931).

1930 (1)

B. A. Lomakin, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 187, 75–96 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 37, 665–706 (1920).

1919 (1)

C. W. Hill and G. P. Luckey, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. 60, 342–353 (1919).

1917 (1)

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 31, 365–390 (1917).

Barker, F. G.

F. G. Barker, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 139, 211–55 (1939).

Breckpot, R.

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles B55, 173–194 (1935).

R. Breckpot and L. Lialine, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

R. Breckpot, Chim. et Ind. 31, 220–9 (1934).

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

Brode, W. P.

W. P. Brode, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis (A.S.T.M., 1935), Vol. 35, Part II, pp. 1–6.

Brownsdon, H. W.

H. W. Brownsdon and E. H. S. Van Someren, J. Inst. Metals 46, 97–113 (1931).

Chaney, N. K.

N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Clark, Walter

Walter Clark, Photo Technique, pp. 54–58 (Oct.1940).

France, Walter D.

Walter D. France, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 681–685 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Wm. E. Milligan and Walter D. France, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 32, 24–27 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, We.

We. Gerlach and E. Riedl, Metallwirtschaft 12, 401–5 (1933).

Glass, S. W.

N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Hamister, U. C.

N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, G. R.

G. R. Harrison, Metals and Alloys 7, 290–296 (1936).

G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables, with Intensities in Arc, Spark or Discharge Tube (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

Hill, C. W.

C. W. Hill and G. P. Luckey, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. 60, 342–353 (1919).

Kaiser, H.

H. Kaiser, Proceedings of the Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940), pp. 77–81.

King, Carl

Leichtle, P. A.

P. A. Leichtle, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis, A.S.T.M. Bull. PP 49 (March, 1941).

Lewis, E. J.

B. Park and E. J. Lewis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7, 182–3 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Lialine, L.

R. Breckpot and L. Lialine, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

Lomakin, B. A.

B. A. Lomakin, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 187, 75–96 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Luckey, G. P.

C. W. Hill and G. P. Luckey, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. 60, 342–353 (1919).

MacPherson, H. G.

Milbourn, M.

M. Milbourn, J. Inst. Metals 55, 275–82 (1934).

Milligan, Wm. E.

Wm. E. Milligan and Walter D. France, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 32, 24–27 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park and E. J. Lewis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7, 182–3 (1935).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 6, 189–190 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Ratsbaum, E. A.

E. A. Ratsbaum, Zavodskaya Lab. 6, 191–5 (1937).

Riedl, E.

We. Gerlach and E. Riedl, Metallwirtschaft 12, 401–5 (1933).

Roy Mott, Wm.

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 37, 665–706 (1920).

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 31, 365–390 (1917).

Smith, D. M.

D. M. Smith, Metallurgical Analysis by the Spectrograph (British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, London, 1933).

Sventitskii, N. S.

N. S. Sventitskii, Zavodskaya Lab. 7, 1371–8 (1938).

Van Someren, E. H. S.

H. W. Brownsdon and E. H. S. Van Someren, J. Inst. Metals 46, 97–113 (1931).

Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles (3)

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

R. Breckpot, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles B55, 173–194 (1935).

R. Breckpot and L. Lialine, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 54, 299–314 (1934).

Chim. et Ind. (1)

R. Breckpot, Chim. et Ind. 31, 220–9 (1934).

Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. (3)

B. Park, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 6, 189–190 (1934).
[CrossRef]

B. Park and E. J. Lewis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7, 182–3 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Wm. E. Milligan and Walter D. France, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 32, 24–27 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Metals (2)

M. Milbourn, J. Inst. Metals 55, 275–82 (1934).

H. W. Brownsdon and E. H. S. Van Someren, J. Inst. Metals 46, 97–113 (1931).

J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) (1)

F. G. Barker, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 139, 211–55 (1939).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Metallwirtschaft (1)

We. Gerlach and E. Riedl, Metallwirtschaft 12, 401–5 (1933).

Metals and Alloys (1)

G. R. Harrison, Metals and Alloys 7, 290–296 (1936).

Photo Technique (1)

Walter Clark, Photo Technique, pp. 54–58 (Oct.1940).

Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 31, 365–390 (1917).

Wm. Roy Mott, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 37, 665–706 (1920).

N. K. Chaney, U. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 201 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. (1)

C. W. Hill and G. P. Luckey, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng. 60, 342–353 (1919).

Zavodskaya Lab. (2)

E. A. Ratsbaum, Zavodskaya Lab. 6, 191–5 (1937).

N. S. Sventitskii, Zavodskaya Lab. 7, 1371–8 (1938).

Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie (1)

B. A. Lomakin, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 187, 75–96 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Kaiser, Proceedings of the Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and Its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940), pp. 77–81.

D. M. Smith, Metallurgical Analysis by the Spectrograph (British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, London, 1933).

P. A. Leichtle, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis, A.S.T.M. Bull. PP 49 (March, 1941).

G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables, with Intensities in Arc, Spark or Discharge Tube (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

Standards for Copper and Copper Alloys (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, 1942), pp. 60–65.

W. P. Brode, Symposium on Spectrographic Analysis (A.S.T.M., 1935), Vol. 35, Part II, pp. 1–6.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the pellet press used in compressing the weighed sample of brass millings or drillings into circular disks 3 16 diam. A, mold; B, supporting anvil; C, punch; D, receptacle. With the mold in position to the right, the weighed sample is brushed into the mold, the punch is inserted and lightly tapped with a copper hammer. The mold is then moved to the left position (as shown in the photo) and the disk sample drops through an opening in the supporting anvil into a small drawer-like receptacle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the cupped graphite electrodes used in the spectrographic testing of 70/30 brass and admiralty brass. d—diam. of graphite rod=0.250″; drill angle=48°; cup depth=0.19″; and inside diam. =0.215″.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A photograph showing the appearance of the globule and supporting graphite electrode during an average exposure. Reading from left to right: back row: at 0, 2, 3, 5 seconds; middle row: at 10, 20, 30, 40 seconds; front row: at 50, 60, 70, 80 seconds, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average calibration curve for the wave-length region 2590 to 3100A. Step sector of eight steps, step ratio 1.585 to 1. Source: 4-ampere d.c. arc on copper electrodes. Eastman Spectrum Analysis No. 1 plate. Brush development in D-19, 2.5 minutes at 70°F.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Analytical curve for lead in 70/30 brass and admiralty brass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analytical curves for iron and antimony in 70/30 brass and admiralty brass.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analytical curve for nickel in 70/30 brass and admiralty brass.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Analytical curve for tin in 70/30 brass.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Analytical curve for bismuth in 70/30 brass.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Analytical curve for lead in 70/30 brass by an alternative method, using bismuth as the internal standard reference element.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table II Analytical line pairs.