Abstract

In work with the microscope, maximum returns in the way of crisp imagery, in detail and in visual comfort, as well, are obtained only when the conditions of illumination are carefully adjusted. Since the eye is a physiological mechanism, special conditions beyond those basic to good photomicrography are necessary for high visual efficiency. The problem of vision through a microscope is discussed and the literature relative to visual acuity is reviewed. Conditions for high visual acuity and visual comfort are outlined.

© 1944 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Studies with the eye camera show that when a person views a visual pattern, such as a picture, movements of the eyeball are erratic, jerky, zig-zag, and repetitive. [H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260–268 (1940); Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564–574 (1940).] Even during intense fixation on a small object in the visual field, there are small erratic nystagmic movements, many per second. [F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthal. 12, 475–483 (1934)].
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 102 pp. (1935).
  3. S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).
  4. A. Gullstrand, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, 1924), edited by G. P. C. Southall, Vol. 1, p. 357.
  5. H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monograph 40, No. 3, 1–189 (1930). L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthal. 22, 233–251 (1939). C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and C. Hardy, Arch. Ophthal. 5, 717–731 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B112, 428–450 (1933). W. D. Wright and J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936). B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B124, 81–96 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Aubert and A. Foerster, Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) 3 Abt. 2, 1–37 (1857).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. A. Wentworth, see reference 5.
  9. W. E. LeGros Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205–232 (1942).
  10. S. R. Bruesch and L. B. Arey, J. Comp. Neurol. 77, 631–665 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Bartley, Vision, a Study of Its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1941). W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia, reference 7 (Visual Mechanisms) 117–164 (1942). G. L. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 487–505 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  12. General: P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928). P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104–1120 (1928). Important but more restricted studies are: Area: A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687–694 (1938). G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269–287 (1938).W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 23, 101–141 (1939).C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940). Intensity: C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 639–650 (1938). N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 31, 380–392 (1942). M. Keller, J. Exper. Psychol. 28, 407–418 (1941). Contrast: E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 25, 469–474 (1941). C. Fabry, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 48, 747–762 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Conrad Beck, The Microscope, Theory and Practice (R. and J. Beck, London, 1938).
  14. Glare and decreased contrast caused by lenticular reflections, etc. in field glasses may account for results of Martin and Richards that appear contrary to the weight of evidence to be presented in the next section. A field glass was adjusted for a wide view angle and for a narrow angle and these were compared at high and low intensities for the perception of small dark objects on a bright field. Higher acuity was found with low intensity and wide field or with high intensity and narrow field; high intensity and wide field must have been inefficient because of glare. [L. C. Martin and T. C. Richards, Trans. Opt. Soc. London. 30, 22–33 (1928–29).]
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. T. Dempster, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 695 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 1, 540–566 (1916). J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936). Holway and Hurvich, reference 12. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 571–597 (1939). S. H. Bartley and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 342–347 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. W. Cobb and L. R. Geissler, Psychol. Rev. 20, 425–447 (1913). R. J. Lythgoe, “The measurement of visual acuity,” , 85 pp. (1932). S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165–188 (1937).M. B. Fisher, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 215–238 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The adaptation of the eye; its relation to the critical frequency of flicker,” Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134, 72 pp. (1929). S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979–989 (1936). Perception of flicker is probably not pertinent to microscope vision, but it is of interest to note that this faculty is influenced by peripheral illumination much the way that acuity discrimination is.
  19. K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).
  20. C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Psychol. Rev. 27, 377–398 (1920). C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Ophthal. 7, 843–850 (1924).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Lythgoe, see reference 17.
  22. S. H. Bartley, J. Comp. Psychol. 19, 149–154 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168–182 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. T. Chuprakov, Vestnik. Oftal. 17, 680–685 (1940). From Biol. Abs.16 (1942), Abs. 19979.
  25. Lythgoe, see reference 17.
  26. H. Sewall, J. Physiol. 5, 132–139 (1884).
  27. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Exper. Psychol. 20, 589–596 (1937). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Am. J. Ophthal. 22, 616–621 (1939). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 35, 19–32 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 6–7 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936).
  30. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, The Science of Seeing (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1937). It will be apparent that this is a general statement relating to so-called “normal” eyes. Actually, the best selected “normal” eyes may in certain cases be defective according to special tests [I. Mann and D. Archibald, Brit. Med. J., pp. 387–390 (1944)] and optimal lighting for a specific person may depart slightly from an average optimum.
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.
  32. There is evidence that illumination of one eye in addition improves the sensitivity of the other. [G. W. Hartmann, J. Exper. Psychol. 16, 383–392 (1933); S. V. Kravkov, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 805–812 (1934).] The effect appears to be more marked when the percipient eye views dark objects on a light field—an approximation to conditions in bright-field microscopy.
    [CrossRef]
  33. John Belling, The Use of the Microscope (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1930).
  34. L. G. H. Hardy, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 364–384 (1934). L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 26, 107–196 (1931). R. J. Lythgoe, “Illumination and visual capacities,” , 80 pp. (1926).
  35. K. B. Merling-Eisenberg, Nature 139, 416–417 (1937). B. P. Ramsey, E. L. Cleveland, and W. A. Bowen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 288–292 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. W. Wilcox, J. Gen. Psychol. 15, 405–434 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Lythgoe, see reference 17.
  38. P. W. Cobb, Am. J. Physiol. 36, 335–346 (1914–15).
  39. Ferree, Rand, and Lewis, reference 31.
  40. M. Luckiesh, Elec. World 58, 1252–1254 (1911). H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B106, 276–292 (1930). S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, and A. M. Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Aviation Med. 13, 193–200 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  41. T. W. Engelmann, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 23, 505–535 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B131, 340–361 (1942).
  43. The author wishes to express his obligation to Dr. G. L. Walls, of the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, and Dr. O. W. Richards, of the Spencer Lens Company, whose comments and criticism of the manuscript have been most valuable.

1944 (1)

1942 (4)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B131, 340–361 (1942).

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 6–7 (1942).
[CrossRef]

W. E. LeGros Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205–232 (1942).

S. R. Bruesch and L. B. Arey, J. Comp. Neurol. 77, 631–665 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1940 (2)

Studies with the eye camera show that when a person views a visual pattern, such as a picture, movements of the eyeball are erratic, jerky, zig-zag, and repetitive. [H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260–268 (1940); Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564–574 (1940).] Even during intense fixation on a small object in the visual field, there are small erratic nystagmic movements, many per second. [F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthal. 12, 475–483 (1934)].
[CrossRef]

A. T. Chuprakov, Vestnik. Oftal. 17, 680–685 (1940). From Biol. Abs.16 (1942), Abs. 19979.

1939 (1)

1938 (1)

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

1937 (2)

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Exper. Psychol. 20, 589–596 (1937). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Am. J. Ophthal. 22, 616–621 (1939). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 35, 19–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Merling-Eisenberg, Nature 139, 416–417 (1937). B. P. Ramsey, E. L. Cleveland, and W. A. Bowen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 288–292 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

W. W. Wilcox, J. Gen. Psychol. 15, 405–434 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1935 (2)

S. H. Bartley, J. Comp. Psychol. 19, 149–154 (1935).
[CrossRef]

G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 102 pp. (1935).

1934 (2)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.

L. G. H. Hardy, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 364–384 (1934). L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 26, 107–196 (1931). R. J. Lythgoe, “Illumination and visual capacities,” , 80 pp. (1926).

1933 (2)

There is evidence that illumination of one eye in addition improves the sensitivity of the other. [G. W. Hartmann, J. Exper. Psychol. 16, 383–392 (1933); S. V. Kravkov, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 805–812 (1934).] The effect appears to be more marked when the percipient eye views dark objects on a light field—an approximation to conditions in bright-field microscopy.
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B112, 428–450 (1933). W. D. Wright and J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936). B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B124, 81–96 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monograph 40, No. 3, 1–189 (1930). L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthal. 22, 233–251 (1939). C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and C. Hardy, Arch. Ophthal. 5, 717–731 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The adaptation of the eye; its relation to the critical frequency of flicker,” Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134, 72 pp. (1929). S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979–989 (1936). Perception of flicker is probably not pertinent to microscope vision, but it is of interest to note that this faculty is influenced by peripheral illumination much the way that acuity discrimination is.

1928 (1)

General: P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928). P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104–1120 (1928). Important but more restricted studies are: Area: A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687–694 (1938). G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269–287 (1938).W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 23, 101–141 (1939).C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940). Intensity: C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 639–650 (1938). N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 31, 380–392 (1942). M. Keller, J. Exper. Psychol. 28, 407–418 (1941). Contrast: E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 25, 469–474 (1941). C. Fabry, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 48, 747–762 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Psychol. Rev. 27, 377–398 (1920). C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Ophthal. 7, 843–850 (1924).
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 1, 540–566 (1916). J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936). Holway and Hurvich, reference 12. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 571–597 (1939). S. H. Bartley and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 342–347 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1913 (1)

P. W. Cobb and L. R. Geissler, Psychol. Rev. 20, 425–447 (1913). R. J. Lythgoe, “The measurement of visual acuity,” , 85 pp. (1932). S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165–188 (1937).M. B. Fisher, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 215–238 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1911 (1)

M. Luckiesh, Elec. World 58, 1252–1254 (1911). H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B106, 276–292 (1930). S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, and A. M. Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Aviation Med. 13, 193–200 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1884 (1)

H. Sewall, J. Physiol. 5, 132–139 (1884).

1880 (1)

T. W. Engelmann, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 23, 505–535 (1880).
[CrossRef]

1857 (1)

H. R. Aubert and A. Foerster, Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) 3 Abt. 2, 1–37 (1857).
[CrossRef]

Arey, L. B.

S. R. Bruesch and L. B. Arey, J. Comp. Neurol. 77, 631–665 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, H. R.

H. R. Aubert and A. Foerster, Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) 3 Abt. 2, 1–37 (1857).
[CrossRef]

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Comp. Psychol. 19, 149–154 (1935).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Bartley, Vision, a Study of Its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1941). W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia, reference 7 (Visual Mechanisms) 117–164 (1942). G. L. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 487–505 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Beck, Conrad

Conrad Beck, The Microscope, Theory and Practice (R. and J. Beck, London, 1938).

Belling, John

John Belling, The Use of the Microscope (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1930).

Brandt, H. F.

Studies with the eye camera show that when a person views a visual pattern, such as a picture, movements of the eyeball are erratic, jerky, zig-zag, and repetitive. [H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260–268 (1940); Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564–574 (1940).] Even during intense fixation on a small object in the visual field, there are small erratic nystagmic movements, many per second. [F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthal. 12, 475–483 (1934)].
[CrossRef]

Bruesch, S. R.

S. R. Bruesch and L. B. Arey, J. Comp. Neurol. 77, 631–665 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Chuprakov, A. T.

A. T. Chuprakov, Vestnik. Oftal. 17, 680–685 (1940). From Biol. Abs.16 (1942), Abs. 19979.

Cobb, P. W.

General: P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928). P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104–1120 (1928). Important but more restricted studies are: Area: A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687–694 (1938). G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269–287 (1938).W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 23, 101–141 (1939).C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940). Intensity: C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 639–650 (1938). N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 31, 380–392 (1942). M. Keller, J. Exper. Psychol. 28, 407–418 (1941). Contrast: E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 25, 469–474 (1941). C. Fabry, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 48, 747–762 (1936).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 1, 540–566 (1916). J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936). Holway and Hurvich, reference 12. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 571–597 (1939). S. H. Bartley and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 342–347 (1934).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Cobb, Am. J. Physiol. 36, 335–346 (1914–15).

P. W. Cobb and L. R. Geissler, Psychol. Rev. 20, 425–447 (1913). R. J. Lythgoe, “The measurement of visual acuity,” , 85 pp. (1932). S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165–188 (1937).M. B. Fisher, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 215–238 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B112, 428–450 (1933). W. D. Wright and J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936). B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B124, 81–96 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Dempster, W. T.

Engelmann, T. W.

T. W. Engelmann, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 23, 505–535 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Ferree,

Ferree, Rand, and Lewis, reference 31.

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Psychol. Rev. 27, 377–398 (1920). C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Ophthal. 7, 843–850 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Foerster, A.

H. R. Aubert and A. Foerster, Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) 3 Abt. 2, 1–37 (1857).
[CrossRef]

Geissler, L. R.

P. W. Cobb and L. R. Geissler, Psychol. Rev. 20, 425–447 (1913). R. J. Lythgoe, “The measurement of visual acuity,” , 85 pp. (1932). S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165–188 (1937).M. B. Fisher, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 215–238 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, 1924), edited by G. P. C. Southall, Vol. 1, p. 357.

Hardy, L. G. H.

L. G. H. Hardy, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 364–384 (1934). L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 26, 107–196 (1931). R. J. Lythgoe, “Illumination and visual capacities,” , 80 pp. (1926).

Hartmann, G. W.

There is evidence that illumination of one eye in addition improves the sensitivity of the other. [G. W. Hartmann, J. Exper. Psychol. 16, 383–392 (1933); S. V. Kravkov, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 805–812 (1934).] The effect appears to be more marked when the percipient eye views dark objects on a light field—an approximation to conditions in bright-field microscopy.
[CrossRef]

LeGros Clark, W. E.

W. E. LeGros Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205–232 (1942).

Lewis,

Ferree, Rand, and Lewis, reference 31.

Lewis, E. F.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.

Luckiesh, M.

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 6–7 (1942).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Exper. Psychol. 20, 589–596 (1937). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Am. J. Ophthal. 22, 616–621 (1939). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 35, 19–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh, Elec. World 58, 1252–1254 (1911). H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B106, 276–292 (1930). S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, and A. M. Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Aviation Med. 13, 193–200 (1942).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, The Science of Seeing (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1937). It will be apparent that this is a general statement relating to so-called “normal” eyes. Actually, the best selected “normal” eyes may in certain cases be defective according to special tests [I. Mann and D. Archibald, Brit. Med. J., pp. 387–390 (1944)] and optimal lighting for a specific person may depart slightly from an average optimum.
[CrossRef]

Lythgoe,

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

Lythgoe, R. J.

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The adaptation of the eye; its relation to the critical frequency of flicker,” Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134, 72 pp. (1929). S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979–989 (1936). Perception of flicker is probably not pertinent to microscope vision, but it is of interest to note that this faculty is influenced by peripheral illumination much the way that acuity discrimination is.

Martin, L. C.

Glare and decreased contrast caused by lenticular reflections, etc. in field glasses may account for results of Martin and Richards that appear contrary to the weight of evidence to be presented in the next section. A field glass was adjusted for a wide view angle and for a narrow angle and these were compared at high and low intensities for the perception of small dark objects on a bright field. Higher acuity was found with low intensity and wide field or with high intensity and narrow field; high intensity and wide field must have been inefficient because of glare. [L. C. Martin and T. C. Richards, Trans. Opt. Soc. London. 30, 22–33 (1928–29).]
[CrossRef]

Merling-Eisenberg, K. B.

K. B. Merling-Eisenberg, Nature 139, 416–417 (1937). B. P. Ramsey, E. L. Cleveland, and W. A. Bowen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 288–292 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Moon, P.

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936).

Moss, F. K.

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 6–7 (1942).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Exper. Psychol. 20, 589–596 (1937). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Am. J. Ophthal. 22, 616–621 (1939). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 35, 19–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

General: P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928). P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104–1120 (1928). Important but more restricted studies are: Area: A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687–694 (1938). G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269–287 (1938).W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 23, 101–141 (1939).C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940). Intensity: C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 639–650 (1938). N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 31, 380–392 (1942). M. Keller, J. Exper. Psychol. 28, 407–418 (1941). Contrast: E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 25, 469–474 (1941). C. Fabry, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 48, 747–762 (1936).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, The Science of Seeing (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1937). It will be apparent that this is a general statement relating to so-called “normal” eyes. Actually, the best selected “normal” eyes may in certain cases be defective according to special tests [I. Mann and D. Archibald, Brit. Med. J., pp. 387–390 (1944)] and optimal lighting for a specific person may depart slightly from an average optimum.
[CrossRef]

Ornstein, L. S.

Østerberg, G.

G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 102 pp. (1935).

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Rand,

Ferree, Rand, and Lewis, reference 31.

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Psychol. Rev. 27, 377–398 (1920). C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Ophthal. 7, 843–850 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Richards, T. C.

Glare and decreased contrast caused by lenticular reflections, etc. in field glasses may account for results of Martin and Richards that appear contrary to the weight of evidence to be presented in the next section. A field glass was adjusted for a wide view angle and for a narrow angle and these were compared at high and low intensities for the perception of small dark objects on a bright field. Higher acuity was found with low intensity and wide field or with high intensity and narrow field; high intensity and wide field must have been inefficient because of glare. [L. C. Martin and T. C. Richards, Trans. Opt. Soc. London. 30, 22–33 (1928–29).]
[CrossRef]

Schouten, J. F.

Sewall, H.

H. Sewall, J. Physiol. 5, 132–139 (1884).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B112, 428–450 (1933). W. D. Wright and J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936). B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B124, 81–96 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Tansley, K.

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The adaptation of the eye; its relation to the critical frequency of flicker,” Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134, 72 pp. (1929). S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979–989 (1936). Perception of flicker is probably not pertinent to microscope vision, but it is of interest to note that this faculty is influenced by peripheral illumination much the way that acuity discrimination is.

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B131, 340–361 (1942).

Wentworth, H. A.

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monograph 40, No. 3, 1–189 (1930). L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthal. 22, 233–251 (1939). C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and C. Hardy, Arch. Ophthal. 5, 717–731 (1931).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wentworth, see reference 5.

Wilcox, W. W.

W. W. Wilcox, J. Gen. Psychol. 15, 405–434 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B131, 340–361 (1942).

Acta Ophthal. Suppl. (1)

G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 102 pp. (1935).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

P. W. Cobb, Am. J. Physiol. 36, 335–346 (1914–15).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

Studies with the eye camera show that when a person views a visual pattern, such as a picture, movements of the eyeball are erratic, jerky, zig-zag, and repetitive. [H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260–268 (1940); Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564–574 (1940).] Even during intense fixation on a small object in the visual field, there are small erratic nystagmic movements, many per second. [F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthal. 12, 475–483 (1934)].
[CrossRef]

Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. (1)

T. W. Engelmann, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 23, 505–535 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) (1)

H. R. Aubert and A. Foerster, Archiv. f. Ophthal. (Graefe) 3 Abt. 2, 1–37 (1857).
[CrossRef]

Elec. World (1)

M. Luckiesh, Elec. World 58, 1252–1254 (1911). H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B106, 276–292 (1930). S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, and A. M. Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Aviation Med. 13, 193–200 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

S. R. Bruesch and L. B. Arey, J. Comp. Neurol. 77, 631–665 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Psychol. (1)

S. H. Bartley, J. Comp. Psychol. 19, 149–154 (1935).
[CrossRef]

J. Exper. Psychol. (3)

There is evidence that illumination of one eye in addition improves the sensitivity of the other. [G. W. Hartmann, J. Exper. Psychol. 16, 383–392 (1933); S. V. Kravkov, J. Exper. Psychol. 17, 805–812 (1934).] The effect appears to be more marked when the percipient eye views dark objects on a light field—an approximation to conditions in bright-field microscopy.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 1, 540–566 (1916). J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185–209 (1936). Holway and Hurvich, reference 12. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 571–597 (1939). S. H. Bartley and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 342–347 (1934).
[CrossRef]

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Exper. Psychol. 20, 589–596 (1937). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Am. J. Ophthal. 22, 616–621 (1939). M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 35, 19–32 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Frank. Inst. (1)

General: P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, J. Frank. Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928). P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104–1120 (1928). Important but more restricted studies are: Area: A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687–694 (1938). G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269–287 (1938).W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 23, 101–141 (1939).C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940). Intensity: C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 639–650 (1938). N. R. Bartlett, J. Exper. Psychol. 31, 380–392 (1942). M. Keller, J. Exper. Psychol. 28, 407–418 (1941). Contrast: E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 25, 469–474 (1941). C. Fabry, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 48, 747–762 (1936).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Psychol. (1)

W. W. Wilcox, J. Gen. Psychol. 15, 405–434 (1936).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (2)

H. Sewall, J. Physiol. 5, 132–139 (1884).

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

Nature (1)

K. B. Merling-Eisenberg, Nature 139, 416–417 (1937). B. P. Ramsey, E. L. Cleveland, and W. A. Bowen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 288–292 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

W. E. LeGros Clark, Physiol. Rev. 22, 205–232 (1942).

Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134 (1)

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The adaptation of the eye; its relation to the critical frequency of flicker,” Privy Council Medical Research Council Spec. Res. Ser. No. 134, 72 pp. (1929). S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979–989 (1936). Perception of flicker is probably not pertinent to microscope vision, but it is of interest to note that this faculty is influenced by peripheral illumination much the way that acuity discrimination is.

Proc. Roy. Soc. London (2)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B112, 428–450 (1933). W. D. Wright and J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936). B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B124, 81–96 (1937).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B131, 340–361 (1942).

Psychol. Monograph (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monograph 40, No. 3, 1–189 (1930). L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthal. 22, 233–251 (1939). C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and C. Hardy, Arch. Ophthal. 5, 717–731 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev. (2)

P. W. Cobb and L. R. Geissler, Psychol. Rev. 20, 425–447 (1913). R. J. Lythgoe, “The measurement of visual acuity,” , 85 pp. (1932). S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165–188 (1937).M. B. Fisher, J. Exper. Psychol. 23, 215–238 (1938).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Psychol. Rev. 27, 377–398 (1920). C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Ophthal. 7, 843–850 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (2)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and E. F. Lewis, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 296–313 (1934). Crozier and Holway, see reference 12.

L. G. H. Hardy, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29, 364–384 (1934). L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 26, 107–196 (1931). R. J. Lythgoe, “Illumination and visual capacities,” , 80 pp. (1926).

Trans. Opt. Soc. London. (1)

Glare and decreased contrast caused by lenticular reflections, etc. in field glasses may account for results of Martin and Richards that appear contrary to the weight of evidence to be presented in the next section. A field glass was adjusted for a wide view angle and for a narrow angle and these were compared at high and low intensities for the perception of small dark objects on a bright field. Higher acuity was found with low intensity and wide field or with high intensity and narrow field; high intensity and wide field must have been inefficient because of glare. [L. C. Martin and T. C. Richards, Trans. Opt. Soc. London. 30, 22–33 (1928–29).]
[CrossRef]

Vestnik. Oftal. (1)

A. T. Chuprakov, Vestnik. Oftal. 17, 680–685 (1940). From Biol. Abs.16 (1942), Abs. 19979.

Other (13)

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

Conrad Beck, The Microscope, Theory and Practice (R. and J. Beck, London, 1938).

S. H. Bartley, Vision, a Study of Its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1941). W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia, reference 7 (Visual Mechanisms) 117–164 (1942). G. L. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 487–505 (1943).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

A. Gullstrand, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, 1924), edited by G. P. C. Southall, Vol. 1, p. 357.

H. A. Wentworth, see reference 5.

John Belling, The Use of the Microscope (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1930).

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936).

M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, The Science of Seeing (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1937). It will be apparent that this is a general statement relating to so-called “normal” eyes. Actually, the best selected “normal” eyes may in certain cases be defective according to special tests [I. Mann and D. Archibald, Brit. Med. J., pp. 387–390 (1944)] and optimal lighting for a specific person may depart slightly from an average optimum.
[CrossRef]

The author wishes to express his obligation to Dr. G. L. Walls, of the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, and Dr. O. W. Richards, of the Spencer Lens Company, whose comments and criticism of the manuscript have been most valuable.

Lythgoe, see reference 17.

Ferree, Rand, and Lewis, reference 31.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The eyeball (A) is shown in section above the ocular of a microscope (B). The refraction of rays from the bright field (X), from the ocular rim (Y), and from the general surround (Z) is diagrammed. The relative concentration of retinal cones (black region) and rods (horizontal shading) for the horizontal meridian of the retina (Østerberg’s data) is represented as a polar graph surrounding the eyeball.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A diffuse reflected illumination of about 10 eq. ft.-c is obtained with this arrangement: 2 150-w lamps without reflectors or 2 100-w lamps with reflectors; dimensions x and y = 30″, z = 36″; table top and wall a dull white. Shields (not shown) should be placed between the worker’s head and he lamps to prevent direct glare.