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Pleasing interval | Displeasing interval | Variation in | Variation in | Variation in |
---|---|---|---|---|
Identity | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to ±1 j.n.d. | |
1st ambiguity | 1 j.n.d. to 4* | 1 j.n.d. to 3* | ±1 j.n.d. to ±25° | |
Similarity | 4 to 12 | 3 to 5 | ±25° to ±43° | |
2nd ambiguity | 12 to 20 | 5 to 7 | ±43° to ±100° | |
Contrast | 20 to 80 | 7→ | ±100° to ±180° | |
glare | >80 | — | — |
Pleasing intervals | Displeasing intervals | Variation in value only | Variation in chroma only+ | Variation in hue only |
---|---|---|---|---|
Identity | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | |
1st ambiguity | 1 j.n.d. to
| 1 j.n.d. to 3 steps | 1 j.n.d. to 7 steps* | |
Similarity |
| 3 to 5 | 7 to 12 | |
2nd ambiguity |
| 5 to 7 | ±12 to ±28 | |
Contrast |
| 7→ | ±28 to ±50 | |
glare | >10 | — | — |
Region | Chroma difference | Value difference | |
---|---|---|---|
1st ambiguity | 2 | 0 | |
Similarity | 0 | 1 | |
2 | 1 | ||
4 | 0 | ||
2nd ambiguity | 0 | 2 | |
2 | 2 | ||
4 | 1 | ||
4 | 2 | ||
6 | 1 | ||
6 | 0 | ||
Contrast | 0 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | |
2 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | ||
4 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | ||
6 | 2, 3, ⋯ 10 | ||
8 | 0, 1, 2, ⋯ 10 | ||
Glare | Any | >10 |
Class I. One variable
Variable Achromatic Two color-points Three points More than three points Chromatic Two points Three points More than three points Variable Two points Three points More than three points Variable Two points Three points More than three points |
Class II. Two variables
In a plane of constant Points on a straight line Triangles Rectangles Points on a circle In a plane of constant Two points Three points on isosceles triangle Five points on two triangles In a cylinder of constant Two points |
Class III. Three variables
With reference to planes of constant With reference to planes of constant With reference to cylinders of constant With reference to tilted planes |
1 |
---|
Two color-points Harmony of analogy. Difference in Example: Harmony of contrast. Difference in Examples: Three points Small equal steps. Difference in Example: Large equal steps. Difference in Example: Large and small steps. Examples: More than three points An obvious extension of the classification for three colors. |
1 |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Examples: More than three color-points |
2. Variable |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Example: More than three points |
3. Variable |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: 5 Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Example: More than three points |
1 |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Harmony of contrast Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Three points Small steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Large steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Large and small steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) More than three points |
1 |
---|
Isosceles triangle, horizontal base ( All sides constituting small steps Example: All sides large Example: Equal sides large, third side small Example: Isosceles triangle, vertical base ( All sides small Example: All sides large Example: Equal sides large, third side small Example: Right triangles Two mutually perpendicular sides constituting small steps Example: Two sides large Example: One large and one small side Example: More than three points arranged on a triangle |
1 All sides constituting small steps Example: All sides constituting large steps Example: Large and small sides Example: |
2. In a plane of constant |
---|
Two points Example: Three points on isosceles triangle with a vertex on the neutral axis Example: Five points at the vertices of two triangles of the type considered in ( Example: Example: Example: |
3. In a cylinder of constant |
---|
Two points Small steps in Example: Large steps in Example: Small step in Example: Large step in Example: Three points, Example: Four points, Example: |
With reference to planes of constant Example: Examples: Examples: Example: With reference to planes of constant Example: Example: Example: Example: With reference to cylinders of constant Example: Example: Example: Example: With reference to tilted planes Examples: Example: |
Desirable and ambiguous intervals between colors (
Pleasing interval | Displeasing interval | Variation in | Variation in | Variation in |
---|---|---|---|---|
Identity | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to ±1 j.n.d. | |
1st ambiguity | 1 j.n.d. to 4* | 1 j.n.d. to 3* | ±1 j.n.d. to ±25° | |
Similarity | 4 to 12 | 3 to 5 | ±25° to ±43° | |
2nd ambiguity | 12 to 20 | 5 to 7 | ±43° to ±100° | |
Contrast | 20 to 80 | 7→ | ±100° to ±180° | |
glare | >80 | — | — |
Desirable and ambiguous intervals between colors (Munsell system).
Pleasing intervals | Displeasing intervals | Variation in value only | Variation in chroma only+ | Variation in hue only |
---|---|---|---|---|
Identity | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | 0 to 1 j.n.d. | |
1st ambiguity | 1 j.n.d. to
| 1 j.n.d. to 3 steps | 1 j.n.d. to 7 steps* | |
Similarity |
| 3 to 5 | 7 to 12 | |
2nd ambiguity |
| 5 to 7 | ±12 to ±28 | |
Contrast |
| 7→ | ±28 to ±50 | |
glare | >10 | — | — |
Ambiguity, similarity, and contrast in a plane of constant hue expressed in Munsell notation (see Fig. 4).
Region | Chroma difference | Value difference | |
---|---|---|---|
1st ambiguity | 2 | 0 | |
Similarity | 0 | 1 | |
2 | 1 | ||
4 | 0 | ||
2nd ambiguity | 0 | 2 | |
2 | 2 | ||
4 | 1 | ||
4 | 2 | ||
6 | 1 | ||
6 | 0 | ||
Contrast | 0 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | |
2 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | ||
4 | 3, 4, ⋯ 10 | ||
6 | 2, 3, ⋯ 10 | ||
8 | 0, 1, 2, ⋯ 10 | ||
Glare | Any | >10 |
Classification of harmonies.
Class I. One variable
Variable Achromatic Two color-points Three points More than three points Chromatic Two points Three points More than three points Variable Two points Three points More than three points Variable Two points Three points More than three points |
Class II. Two variables
In a plane of constant Points on a straight line Triangles Rectangles Points on a circle In a plane of constant Two points Three points on isosceles triangle Five points on two triangles In a cylinder of constant Two points |
Class III. Three variables
With reference to planes of constant With reference to planes of constant With reference to cylinders of constant With reference to tilted planes |
Class I. Harmonies in one variable.
1 |
---|
Two color-points Harmony of analogy. Difference in Example: Harmony of contrast. Difference in Examples: Three points Small equal steps. Difference in Example: Large equal steps. Difference in Example: Large and small steps. Examples: More than three points An obvious extension of the classification for three colors. |
Class I. Harmonies in one variable.
1 |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Examples: More than three color-points |
Class I. Harmonies in one variable.
2. Variable |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Example: More than three points |
Class I. Harmonies in one variable.
3. Variable |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: Harmony of contrast Examples: 5 Three points Small steps Examples: Large steps Example: Large and small steps Example: More than three points |
Class II. Harmonies in two variables.
1 |
---|
Two points Harmony of analogy Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Harmony of contrast Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Three points Small steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Large steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) Large and small steps Examples: (positive slope) (negative slope) More than three points |
Class II. Harmonies in two variables.
1 |
---|
Isosceles triangle, horizontal base ( All sides constituting small steps Example: All sides large Example: Equal sides large, third side small Example: Isosceles triangle, vertical base ( All sides small Example: All sides large Example: Equal sides large, third side small Example: Right triangles Two mutually perpendicular sides constituting small steps Example: Two sides large Example: One large and one small side Example: More than three points arranged on a triangle |
Class II. Harmonies in two variables.
1 All sides constituting small steps Example: All sides constituting large steps Example: Large and small sides Example: |
Class II. Harmonies in two variables.
2. In a plane of constant |
---|
Two points Example: Three points on isosceles triangle with a vertex on the neutral axis Example: Five points at the vertices of two triangles of the type considered in ( Example: Example: Example: |
Class II. Harmonies in two variables.
3. In a cylinder of constant |
---|
Two points Small steps in Example: Large steps in Example: Small step in Example: Large step in Example: Three points, Example: Four points, Example: |
Class II. Harmonies in three variables.
With reference to planes of constant Example: Examples: Examples: Example: With reference to planes of constant Example: Example: Example: Example: With reference to cylinders of constant Example: Example: Example: Example: With reference to tilted planes Examples: Example: |