Abstract

This report presents the characteristics of a modified and enlarged Munsell solid which has been evolved from the 1940 visual estimates of the Munsell Book of Color samples. All three dimensions have been carefully reviewed and extensively revised. The newly defined loci of constant hue have been extended closer to the extremes of value while the loci of constant chroma have been extrapolated to the pigment maximum. The dimension of value has been redefined without substantial departure from the Munsell-Sloan-Godlove scale. By the above changes a solid is achieved which approaches more closely to A. H. Munsell’s dual ideal of psychological equispacing and precise applicability. The new solid is defined in terms of the I.C.I. standard coordinate system and Illuminant C.

© 1943 Optical Society of America

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  1. This subcommittee was appointed by L. A. Jones in 1937 as a Subcommittee of the Colorimetry Committee of the Optical Society of America. It includes H. P. Gage, D. B. Judd, Dorothy Nickerson, W. B. VanArsdel, and S. M. Newhall, chairman. Dr. Gage and Mr. VanArsdel have been unable to participate in the work of reducing the data to this form, but both have indicated approval of the report.
  2. Italic numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited.
  3. This table can be used for plotting complete charts.
  4. The National Bureau of Standards and Glenn-Killian data provided a good check on the samples of the standard 20 hues. When there was doubt because of a large discrepancy, National Bureau of Standards data were used because special calibration precautions had been taken to obtain accurate wave-length and photometric values. The National Bureau of Standards data were used for all value conversions. For the 20 intermediate hues only one set of data was available. It is important to recognize that the table depends upon the accuracy of the I.C.I. colorimetric data supplied for the samples.
  5. These recommendations provide smoothed curves that supersede those given in references 10 and 11 in ASA War Standard (3).
  6. Refers to Munsell-Sloan-Godlove value-reflectance relation, since the new recommended value scale had not then been developed.

Other (6)

This subcommittee was appointed by L. A. Jones in 1937 as a Subcommittee of the Colorimetry Committee of the Optical Society of America. It includes H. P. Gage, D. B. Judd, Dorothy Nickerson, W. B. VanArsdel, and S. M. Newhall, chairman. Dr. Gage and Mr. VanArsdel have been unable to participate in the work of reducing the data to this form, but both have indicated approval of the report.

Italic numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited.

This table can be used for plotting complete charts.

The National Bureau of Standards and Glenn-Killian data provided a good check on the samples of the standard 20 hues. When there was doubt because of a large discrepancy, National Bureau of Standards data were used because special calibration precautions had been taken to obtain accurate wave-length and photometric values. The National Bureau of Standards data were used for all value conversions. For the 20 intermediate hues only one set of data was available. It is important to recognize that the table depends upon the accuracy of the I.C.I. colorimetric data supplied for the samples.

These recommendations provide smoothed curves that supersede those given in references 10 and 11 in ASA War Standard (3).

Refers to Munsell-Sloan-Godlove value-reflectance relation, since the new recommended value scale had not then been developed.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 1/.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 2/.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 3/.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 4/.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 5/.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 6/.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 7/.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 8/.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Loci of constant hue and constant chroma in I.C.I. (x, y)-coordinates, at value 9/.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illustration of transparent scale for reading fractional hue or chroma between adjacent loci in Figs. 19.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The recommended loci for constant chroma /2 to /10 as plotted in Adams’ chromatic-value coordinates. Dotted lines indicate original contour in the purple-blue region.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Master chroma chart in the I.C.I. standard coordinate system showing the recommended loci of constant chroma for every second chroma step from zero to the theoretical maximum at every value level from 1/ through 9/.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Master hue chart in the I.C.I. standard coordinate system showing the recommended loci of constant hue for the 20 standard hues at value levels 1/ through 9/.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Munsell value (Book of Color samples) as a function of reflectance. This figure shows the curve of the recommended value scale (heavy line) in comparison with the Munsell-Sloan-Godlove value function (fine line); and also with the subcommittee’s observations on white (open circles), on gray (crosses), and on black (closed circles) grounds. The large open circles indicate National Bureau of Standards measurements of the samples. Nearly all of these results are seen to fall within the limits of R=V2 (lower dashed curve) and R=k anti-log V (upper dashed curve). Note: The three solid dots which appear below the heavy line should be open circles with crosses in the center.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I The I.C.I. (Y, x, y) equivalents of the recommended Munsell notation for 40 hues and 9 values (V), at every second chroma (C) step from zero to the theoretical pigment maximum.

Tables Icon

Table II I.C.I. (Y) equivalents (in percent relative to MgO) of the recommended Munsell value scale (V) from 0/ to 10/.

Tables Icon

Table III Re-notations for the Munsell Book of Color samples in accordance with the recommended spacing and smoothing adjustments.

Tables Icon

Table IV The I.C.I. (x, y) equivalents of the theoretical pigment maxima for 40 hues on nine value levels.*

Equations (4)

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9.0 + [ 0.4 ( 11.2 - 9.0 ) ] = 9.9.
0.553 + [ 0.4 ( 0.548 - 0.553 ) ] = 0.551.
0.264 + [ 0.4 ( 0.303 - 0.264 ) ] = 0.280.
R Y = 1.2219 V - 0.23111 V 2 + 0.23951 V 3 - 0.021009 V 4 + 0.0008404 V 5 .