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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of 1200 publications on color-blindness by decade. Note the great activity between 1870 and 1890, and the continuing steady interest since that time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative luminosity functions of anomalous trichromats (6 deuteranomalous, 12 protanomalous) compared to averages for dichromats and to limits for normal trichromats. Deuteranopic and deuteranomalous luminosity functions fall generally within normal limits; but protanopic and protanomalous luminosity functions fall outside of normal limits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demonstration that a representative protanopic and protanomalous luminosity can be computed from the normal specification of any color. Instead of normal luminosity, Y, use 0.086Z+1.160Y−0.393X.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromaticity confusions of the protanope and deuteranope (after Pitt). Note how closely the chromaticity-confusion lines (dotted) intersect at a single point for each of the two common types of red-green blindness. The solid lines included for comparison are co-punctal (protanope at x=0.747, y=0.253; deuteranope at x=1.000, y=0.000).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Classification and characteristics of the various visual systems.

Tables Icon

Table II Frequency of occurrence of inherited visual systems.