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  1. C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photography (Macmillan, New York, 1942), Chapter XX.
  2. D. Katz, The World of Color (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., London, 1935); K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt, Brace and Co., N. Y., 1935); A. Gelb in Bethe’s Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1929); E. R. Jaensch, Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 52, 165 (1921).
  3. D. Katz, reference 2; R. H. Thouless, Bull. J. Psychol. 21, 348 (1931).
  4. R. S. Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (Holt & Co., N. Y., 1938), p. 14.
  5. See, for example: H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. B. Jeffers, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1 (1940); D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 24, 293 (March, 1940).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. B. MacLeod, Arch. Psychol. 21, 1–101 (1932).
  7. W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. 115B, 49 (1934); Ibid. 122B, 220 (1937); Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 51 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. F. Schouten, Dissertation, Utrecht, 1937; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Davis, Bur. Stand. J. Research 7, 659 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  11. Although the present writer was led to this concept chiefly by the work of Wright, it was suggested in part, or in whole, by several previous writers. So far as he can determine, it was first proposed by H. E. Ives as a pure hypothesis to explain his observations on artificial daylight: H. E. Ives, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 62 (1912). The following references to the literature using the same approach have been kindly supplied by Dr. Judd: E. Noteboom, Zeits. f. Instrumentenk. 55, 317 (1935); W. Ströble, Das Licht 9, 149 (1939).
  12. H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. 131B, 27 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. König and C. Dieterici, Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 4, 241 (1892).
  14. L. T. Troland, J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 344 (1921); H. Helson and D. B. Judd, ibid. 15, 380 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. Jeffers, ibid. 26, 1 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  16. See, for example, the Symposium on the Munsell system in J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, December (1940); especially J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, “Trichromatic analysis of the Munsell Book of Color” and K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements.”
  17. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  18. See, for example, J. Plateau, Bibliographie analytique des principaux phenomènes subjectifs de la vision jusqu’à la fin du xviii Siècle (Royal Academy of Science, Bruxelles, 1877) and more recently, J. P. C. Southall, Physiological Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1937), p. 398.
  19. W. von Bezold, The theory of color (L. Prang and Co., Boston, 1876), p. 163, S. R. Köhler, translator.
  20. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940); Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Research 24, 293 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. A. Jones and H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 651 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 271 (1926); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. 104B, 322 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104 (1928); P. W. Cobb, ibid. 11, 372 (1916).
  24. Y. LeGrand, Rev. d’Optique 16, 241 (1937).
  25. M. Abribat, Réunions de l’lnstitut d’Optique 6, 3 (No. 3, 1935).
  26. E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 29 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. G. Nutting, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 1 (1916); ibid. 11, 939 (1916).
  28. D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 54, 289–294 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  29. In a private communication, D. B. Judd points out that for intense adapting stimuli there is evidence that changes are produced in the luminosity function. See also N. T. Federow and V. J. Federowa, Zeits. f. Physik 57, 855 (1929); ibid. 62, 834 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. W. Miller, Principles of Photographic Reproduction (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1943).

1942 (2)

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. 131B, 27 (1942).
[Crossref]

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942).
[Crossref]

1941 (2)

1940 (1)

1938 (2)

See, for example: H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. B. Jeffers, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1 (1940); D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 24, 293 (March, 1940).
[Crossref]

H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. Jeffers, ibid. 26, 1 (1940).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

Y. LeGrand, Rev. d’Optique 16, 241 (1937).

1935 (2)

M. Abribat, Réunions de l’lnstitut d’Optique 6, 3 (No. 3, 1935).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. 115B, 49 (1934); Ibid. 122B, 220 (1937); Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 51 (1937).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

R. B. MacLeod, Arch. Psychol. 21, 1–101 (1932).

1931 (1)

R. Davis, Bur. Stand. J. Research 7, 659 (1931).
[Crossref]

1929 (1)

1928 (1)

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104 (1928); P. W. Cobb, ibid. 11, 372 (1916).

1926 (1)

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 271 (1926); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. 104B, 322 (1929).
[Crossref]

1921 (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 344 (1921); H. Helson and D. B. Judd, ibid. 15, 380 (1932).
[Crossref]

1916 (1)

P. G. Nutting, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 1 (1916); ibid. 11, 939 (1916).

1912 (1)

Although the present writer was led to this concept chiefly by the work of Wright, it was suggested in part, or in whole, by several previous writers. So far as he can determine, it was first proposed by H. E. Ives as a pure hypothesis to explain his observations on artificial daylight: H. E. Ives, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 62 (1912). The following references to the literature using the same approach have been kindly supplied by Dr. Judd: E. Noteboom, Zeits. f. Instrumentenk. 55, 317 (1935); W. Ströble, Das Licht 9, 149 (1939).

1892 (1)

A. König and C. Dieterici, Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 4, 241 (1892).

Abribat, M.

M. Abribat, Réunions de l’lnstitut d’Optique 6, 3 (No. 3, 1935).

Adams, E. Q.

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104 (1928); P. W. Cobb, ibid. 11, 372 (1916).

Condit, H. R.

Davis, R.

R. Davis, Bur. Stand. J. Research 7, 659 (1931).
[Crossref]

Dieterici, C.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 4, 241 (1892).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. Jeffers, ibid. 26, 1 (1940).
[Crossref]

See, for example: H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. B. Jeffers, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1 (1940); D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 24, 293 (March, 1940).
[Crossref]

Holladay, L. L.

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 271 (1926); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. 104B, 322 (1929).
[Crossref]

Ives, H. E.

Although the present writer was led to this concept chiefly by the work of Wright, it was suggested in part, or in whole, by several previous writers. So far as he can determine, it was first proposed by H. E. Ives as a pure hypothesis to explain his observations on artificial daylight: H. E. Ives, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 62 (1912). The following references to the literature using the same approach have been kindly supplied by Dr. Judd: E. Noteboom, Zeits. f. Instrumentenk. 55, 317 (1935); W. Ströble, Das Licht 9, 149 (1939).

Jones, L. A.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 54, 289–294 (1941).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940); Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Research 24, 293 (1940).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

In a private communication, D. B. Judd points out that for intense adapting stimuli there is evidence that changes are produced in the luminosity function. See also N. T. Federow and V. J. Federowa, Zeits. f. Physik 57, 855 (1929); ibid. 62, 834 (1930).
[Crossref]

Katz, D.

D. Katz, The World of Color (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., London, 1935); K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt, Brace and Co., N. Y., 1935); A. Gelb in Bethe’s Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1929); E. R. Jaensch, Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 52, 165 (1921).

D. Katz, reference 2; R. H. Thouless, Bull. J. Psychol. 21, 348 (1931).

König, A.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 4, 241 (1892).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Rev. d’Optique 16, 241 (1937).

Lowry, E. M.

MacLeod, R. B.

R. B. MacLeod, Arch. Psychol. 21, 1–101 (1932).

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photography (Macmillan, New York, 1942), Chapter XX.

Miller, C. W.

C. W. Miller, Principles of Photographic Reproduction (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1943).

Moss, F. K.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104 (1928); P. W. Cobb, ibid. 11, 372 (1916).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 1 (1916); ibid. 11, 939 (1916).

Plateau, J.

See, for example, J. Plateau, Bibliographie analytique des principaux phenomènes subjectifs de la vision jusqu’à la fin du xviii Siècle (Royal Academy of Science, Bruxelles, 1877) and more recently, J. P. C. Southall, Physiological Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1937), p. 398.

Schouten, J. F.

J. F. Schouten, Dissertation, Utrecht, 1937; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).
[Crossref]

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 344 (1921); H. Helson and D. B. Judd, ibid. 15, 380 (1932).
[Crossref]

von Bezold, W.

W. von Bezold, The theory of color (L. Prang and Co., Boston, 1876), p. 163, S. R. Köhler, translator.

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. 131B, 27 (1942).
[Crossref]

Woodworth, R. S.

R. S. Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (Holt & Co., N. Y., 1938), p. 14.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. 115B, 49 (1934); Ibid. 122B, 220 (1937); Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 51 (1937).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 54, 289–294 (1941).
[Crossref]

Arch. Psychol. (1)

R. B. MacLeod, Arch. Psychol. 21, 1–101 (1932).

Bur. Stand. J. Research (1)

R. Davis, Bur. Stand. J. Research 7, 659 (1931).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Psychol. (3)

L. T. Troland, J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 344 (1921); H. Helson and D. B. Judd, ibid. 15, 380 (1932).
[Crossref]

H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. Jeffers, ibid. 26, 1 (1940).
[Crossref]

See, for example: H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); H. Helson and V. B. Jeffers, J. Exp. Psychol. 26, 1 (1940); D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 24, 293 (March, 1940).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 271 (1926); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927); W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. 104B, 322 (1929).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (2)

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. 131B, 27 (1942).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. 115B, 49 (1934); Ibid. 122B, 220 (1937); Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 51 (1937).
[Crossref]

Réunions de l’lnstitut d’Optique (1)

M. Abribat, Réunions de l’lnstitut d’Optique 6, 3 (No. 3, 1935).

Rev. d’Optique (1)

Y. LeGrand, Rev. d’Optique 16, 241 (1937).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (3)

P. G. Nutting, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 1 (1916); ibid. 11, 939 (1916).

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23, 1104 (1928); P. W. Cobb, ibid. 11, 372 (1916).

Although the present writer was led to this concept chiefly by the work of Wright, it was suggested in part, or in whole, by several previous writers. So far as he can determine, it was first proposed by H. E. Ives as a pure hypothesis to explain his observations on artificial daylight: H. E. Ives, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 7, 62 (1912). The following references to the literature using the same approach have been kindly supplied by Dr. Judd: E. Noteboom, Zeits. f. Instrumentenk. 55, 317 (1935); W. Ströble, Das Licht 9, 149 (1939).

Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane (1)

A. König and C. Dieterici, Zeits. d. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 4, 241 (1892).

Other (10)

See, for example, J. Plateau, Bibliographie analytique des principaux phenomènes subjectifs de la vision jusqu’à la fin du xviii Siècle (Royal Academy of Science, Bruxelles, 1877) and more recently, J. P. C. Southall, Physiological Optics (Oxford University Press, New York, 1937), p. 398.

W. von Bezold, The theory of color (L. Prang and Co., Boston, 1876), p. 163, S. R. Köhler, translator.

See, for example, the Symposium on the Munsell system in J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, December (1940); especially J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, “Trichromatic analysis of the Munsell Book of Color” and K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, and D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Color from spectrophotometric measurements.”

J. F. Schouten, Dissertation, Utrecht, 1937; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168 (1939).
[Crossref]

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photography (Macmillan, New York, 1942), Chapter XX.

D. Katz, The World of Color (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., London, 1935); K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt, Brace and Co., N. Y., 1935); A. Gelb in Bethe’s Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1929); E. R. Jaensch, Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 52, 165 (1921).

D. Katz, reference 2; R. H. Thouless, Bull. J. Psychol. 21, 348 (1931).

R. S. Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (Holt & Co., N. Y., 1938), p. 14.

In a private communication, D. B. Judd points out that for intense adapting stimuli there is evidence that changes are produced in the luminosity function. See also N. T. Federow and V. J. Federowa, Zeits. f. Physik 57, 855 (1929); ibid. 62, 834 (1930).
[Crossref]

C. W. Miller, Principles of Photographic Reproduction (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1943).

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Equations (10)

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x S D / D = X S D / X D X S D / X D + Y S D / Y D + Z S D / Z D
x S D / D + y S D / D + z S D / D = 1.
x S D / D = x S D / D ,             y S D / D = y S D / D
z S D / D = z S D / D , x S D / D = X S D / X D X S D / X D + Y S D / Y D + Z S D / Z D
x S D / D = X S D / X D X S D / X D + Y Y S D / Y D + Z S D / Z D .
r A = a 11 R A + a 12 G A + a 13 B A , etc . , for g A and b A ,
r E = 1 ,             g E = 1 ,             b E = 1.
r = a 11 R + a 12 G + a 13 B = a 11 R / R A + a 12 G / G A + a 13 B / B A , etc . , for g and b .
r = r / r A = ( a 11 R + a 12 G + a 13 B ) / r A , etc . , for g and b .
r - r = ( 1 / r A - 1 / R A ) a 11 R + ( 1 / r A - 1 / G A ) a 12 G + ( 1 / r A - 1 / B A ) a 13 B g - g = ( 1 / g A - 1 / R A ) a 21 R + ( 1 / g A - 1 / G A ) a 22 G + ( 1 / g A - 1 / B A ) a 23 B b - b = ( 1 / b A - 1 / R A ) a 31 R + ( 1 / b A - 1 / G A ) a 32 G + ( 1 / b A - 1 / B A ) a 33 B .