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  1. An amplification of a paper presented at the Rochester meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 5, 1940, J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, 657 (1940);see also S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 619–620 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Credited by Maxwell and Thomas Young, Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1890) Vol.  2, p. 272,reprinted from Proc. Roy. Inst. (1871).
  3. W. Uyterhoeven, Elektrische Gasentladungslampen (Julius Springer, 1938), Figs. 83, 84, pp. 168, 170.
  4. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 364 (1933), Fig. 2.
  5. This scale factor varies not only from observer to observer—as will be evident from the existence of color-weak as well as color-blind observers—but from point to point on the retina of the same observer, as shown by the change in apparent hue in passing from the fovea to the periphery of the retina. J. W. Baird, The Color Sensitivity of the Peripheral Retina, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 29 (1905).
  6. Munsell Color Company Inc., Baltimore, 1929.
  7. J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609–616 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The standard symbol of the Illuminating Engineering Society for“reflection factor” is ρ. On that basis the quotients would be respectively ρx, ρy,and ρz; their differences ρx−ρy, ρz−ρy; their ratios ρx/ρy, ρz/ρy.X≡∫Φλx¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,Xc≡ρX≡∫Φλx¯ρλdλ/∫Φλx¯dλ,Y≡∫Φλy¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,≡Yc≡ρY,Z≡∫Φλz¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,Zc≡ρZ≡∫Φλz¯ρλdλ/∫Φλz¯dλ.Xc, Yc and Zc are the mean ordinates obtained from spectrophotometric curves for reflection samples by the method of selected ordinates.
  9. It will be evident that this will be true for any other standard illuminant, and that any nearly neutral color will have nearly the same coordinates under various near-white illuminants (color-constancy).
  10. Cf. Fig. 1d, S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 620 (1940), in which the Glenn-Killian tristimulus values have been plotted with a scale factor of 3.
    [CrossRef]
  11. For a constant state of adaption, E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 39–45 (1922), derived the equation, S=B/(B+B0). For samples of finite size, and finite times of presentation, the state of adaption cannot be expected to be uninfluenced by the samples.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. E. O. Munsell, L. L. Sloan, and I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 394, 419 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Psychol. Rev. 36, 56–76 (1923), especially Fig. 1, p. 59.
  14. E. Q. Adams, “A Proposal for the Specification of Scotopic Luminosity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 757 (1941).
  15. S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 639–42 (1940), Figs. 7 to 13.
    [CrossRef]

1941 (1)

E. Q. Adams, “A Proposal for the Specification of Scotopic Luminosity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 757 (1941).

1940 (3)

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 639–42 (1940), Figs. 7 to 13.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609–616 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Cf. Fig. 1d, S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 620 (1940), in which the Glenn-Killian tristimulus values have been plotted with a scale factor of 3.
[CrossRef]

1933 (2)

1923 (1)

Psychol. Rev. 36, 56–76 (1923), especially Fig. 1, p. 59.

1922 (1)

For a constant state of adaption, E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 39–45 (1922), derived the equation, S=B/(B+B0). For samples of finite size, and finite times of presentation, the state of adaption cannot be expected to be uninfluenced by the samples.
[CrossRef]

1890 (1)

Credited by Maxwell and Thomas Young, Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1890) Vol.  2, p. 272,reprinted from Proc. Roy. Inst. (1871).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, “A Proposal for the Specification of Scotopic Luminosity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 757 (1941).

For a constant state of adaption, E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 39–45 (1922), derived the equation, S=B/(B+B0). For samples of finite size, and finite times of presentation, the state of adaption cannot be expected to be uninfluenced by the samples.
[CrossRef]

Baird, J. W.

This scale factor varies not only from observer to observer—as will be evident from the existence of color-weak as well as color-blind observers—but from point to point on the retina of the same observer, as shown by the change in apparent hue in passing from the fovea to the periphery of the retina. J. W. Baird, The Color Sensitivity of the Peripheral Retina, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 29 (1905).

Cobb, P. W.

For a constant state of adaption, E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 39–45 (1922), derived the equation, S=B/(B+B0). For samples of finite size, and finite times of presentation, the state of adaption cannot be expected to be uninfluenced by the samples.
[CrossRef]

Glenn, J. J.

Godlove, I. H.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 364 (1933), Fig. 2.

Killian, J. T.

Maxwell,

Credited by Maxwell and Thomas Young, Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1890) Vol.  2, p. 272,reprinted from Proc. Roy. Inst. (1871).

Munsell, A. E. O.

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 639–42 (1940), Figs. 7 to 13.
[CrossRef]

Cf. Fig. 1d, S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 620 (1940), in which the Glenn-Killian tristimulus values have been plotted with a scale factor of 3.
[CrossRef]

Sloan, L. L.

Uyterhoeven, W.

W. Uyterhoeven, Elektrische Gasentladungslampen (Julius Springer, 1938), Figs. 83, 84, pp. 168, 170.

Young, Thomas

Credited by Maxwell and Thomas Young, Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1890) Vol.  2, p. 272,reprinted from Proc. Roy. Inst. (1871).

J. Exper. Psychol. (1)

For a constant state of adaption, E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exper. Psychol. 5, 39–45 (1922), derived the equation, S=B/(B+B0). For samples of finite size, and finite times of presentation, the state of adaption cannot be expected to be uninfluenced by the samples.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

A. E. O. Munsell, L. L. Sloan, and I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 394, 419 (1933).
[CrossRef]

E. Q. Adams, “A Proposal for the Specification of Scotopic Luminosity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 757 (1941).

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 639–42 (1940), Figs. 7 to 13.
[CrossRef]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 364 (1933), Fig. 2.

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609–616 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Cf. Fig. 1d, S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 620 (1940), in which the Glenn-Killian tristimulus values have been plotted with a scale factor of 3.
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

Psychol. Rev. 36, 56–76 (1923), especially Fig. 1, p. 59.

Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1)

Credited by Maxwell and Thomas Young, Scientific Papers of James Clark Maxwell (1890) Vol.  2, p. 272,reprinted from Proc. Roy. Inst. (1871).

Other (6)

W. Uyterhoeven, Elektrische Gasentladungslampen (Julius Springer, 1938), Figs. 83, 84, pp. 168, 170.

This scale factor varies not only from observer to observer—as will be evident from the existence of color-weak as well as color-blind observers—but from point to point on the retina of the same observer, as shown by the change in apparent hue in passing from the fovea to the periphery of the retina. J. W. Baird, The Color Sensitivity of the Peripheral Retina, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 29 (1905).

Munsell Color Company Inc., Baltimore, 1929.

An amplification of a paper presented at the Rochester meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 5, 1940, J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, 657 (1940);see also S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 619–620 (1940).
[CrossRef]

The standard symbol of the Illuminating Engineering Society for“reflection factor” is ρ. On that basis the quotients would be respectively ρx, ρy,and ρz; their differences ρx−ρy, ρz−ρy; their ratios ρx/ρy, ρz/ρy.X≡∫Φλx¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,Xc≡ρX≡∫Φλx¯ρλdλ/∫Φλx¯dλ,Y≡∫Φλy¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,≡Yc≡ρY,Z≡∫Φλz¯ρλdλ/∫Φλy¯dλ,Zc≡ρZ≡∫Φλz¯ρλdλ/∫Φλz¯dλ.Xc, Yc and Zc are the mean ordinates obtained from spectrophotometric curves for reflection samples by the method of selected ordinates.

It will be evident that this will be true for any other standard illuminant, and that any nearly neutral color will have nearly the same coordinates under various near-white illuminants (color-constancy).

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Figures (13)

F. 1
F. 1

I.C.I. (equal-excitation) chromaticity diagram with x and z plotted at right angles.

F. 2
F. 2

Stereoscopic view of equal-energy spectrum in I.C.I. tristimulus space.

F. 4
F. 4

Constant-brightness chromaticity diagram for Munsell colors of value 5.

F. 6
F. 6

I.C.I. colorimetric magnitudes as related to nerve elements postulated in Adams theory of color vision.

F. 7
F. 7

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 2.

F. 8
F. 8

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 3.

F. 9
F. 9

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 4.

F. 10
F. 10

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 5.

F. 11
F. 11

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 6.

F. 12
F. 12

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 7.

F. 13
F. 13

Chromatic value of Munsell colors at value level 8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Unique chromaticities.

Equations (5)

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X c = 1.01998 X , Y c = Y , Z c = 0.84672 Z ,
S = Φ λ s ¯ d λ .
± ( X Y ) m = 0.3923 ± ( Z Y ) m = 0.8913 ratio = 2.27 .
± ( X c Y c ) m = 0.4013 ± ( Z c Y c ) m = 0.8843 ratio = 2.20 .
XΦλx¯ρλdλ/Φλy¯dλ,XcρXΦλx¯ρλdλ/Φλx¯dλ,YΦλy¯ρλdλ/Φλy¯dλ,YcρY,ZΦλz¯ρλdλ/Φλy¯dλ,ZcρZΦλz¯ρλdλ/Φλz¯dλ.