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  1. S. P. Langley, "The bolometer and radiant energy,"Proc. Am. Acad. 16, 342 (1881).
  2. S. P. Langley, "Energy and vision," Phil. Mag. [5] 27,1 (1889).
  3. In addition to Langley, these are: (a) G. Grijns and A. K. Noyons, "Ueber die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges für Licht," Arch. Anat. und Physiol. 25 (1905); (b) H. Zwaardemaker, "Die physiologisch wahrehmbaren Energiewanderungen," Ergeb. Physiol. 4, 423 (1905); (c) J. von Kries and J. A. E. Eyster, "Über die zur Erregung des Sehorgans erforderlichen Energiemenzen," Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 394 (1907); (d) H. E. Ives, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 44, 124 (1916); (e) H. N. Russell, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 45, 60 (1917); (f) P. Reeves, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 167 (1917); (g) H. Buisson, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 296 (1917); (h) P. Lecomte du Noüy, "Energy and vision," J. Gen. Physiol. 3, 743 (1921); (i) J. Chariton and C. A. Lea, "Some experiments concerning the counting of scintillations produced by alpha particles. Part I," Proc. Roy. Soc. A122, 304 (1929); (j) H. A. Wentworth, "A quantitative study of achromatic and chromatic sensitivity from center to periphery of the visual field," Psych. Monograph 50, 189 pp. (1930); (k) R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, "Lässt sich ein Schroteffekt der Photonen mit dem Auge beobachten?" Zeits. f. Physik 79, 436 (1932).
  4. A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932).
  5. H. Piper, "Über Dunkeladaptation," Zeits. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903); S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, "The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye," J. Gen. Physiol., 20, 831 (1937).
  6. G. Østerberg, "Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina," Acta Ophth., Copenhagen, Supplement 6, pp. 106 (1935).
  7. H. A. Wentworth, see footnote 3 (j).
  8. For a summary of the field see G. Wald, "Area andvisual threshold," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).
  9. C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, "Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina," Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935).
  10. S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, "The visibility of monochromatic radiation and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).
  11. C. Roggenbau and A. Wetthauer, "Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindsauge," Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 79, 456 (1927).
  12. E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).
  13. A. Koenig, "Üeber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeuting für das Sehen," Sitzungsb. Akad. Wissensch., Berlin, 577 (1894).
  14. G. Wald, "On rhodopsin in solution," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 795 (1938).
  15. A. M. Chase and C. Haig, "The absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 411 (1938).
  16. R. J. Lythgoe, "The absorption spectra of visual purple and of indicator yellow," J. Physiol. 89, 331 (1937).
  17. H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409 (1937).
  18. H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).
  19. T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses, (Van Nostrand, New York, 1928).
  20. J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1936).

1938 (5)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

G. Wald, "On rhodopsin in solution," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 795 (1938).

A. M. Chase and C. Haig, "The absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 411 (1938).

For a summary of the field see G. Wald, "Area andvisual threshold," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).

1937 (2)

R. J. Lythgoe, "The absorption spectra of visual purple and of indicator yellow," J. Physiol. 89, 331 (1937).

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409 (1937).

1935 (1)

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, "Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina," Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935).

1927 (1)

C. Roggenbau and A. Wetthauer, "Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindsauge," Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 79, 456 (1927).

1922 (1)

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, "The visibility of monochromatic radiation and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

1905 (1)

In addition to Langley, these are: (a) G. Grijns and A. K. Noyons, "Ueber die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges für Licht," Arch. Anat. und Physiol. 25 (1905); (b) H. Zwaardemaker, "Die physiologisch wahrehmbaren Energiewanderungen," Ergeb. Physiol. 4, 423 (1905); (c) J. von Kries and J. A. E. Eyster, "Über die zur Erregung des Sehorgans erforderlichen Energiemenzen," Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 394 (1907); (d) H. E. Ives, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 44, 124 (1916); (e) H. N. Russell, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 45, 60 (1917); (f) P. Reeves, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 167 (1917); (g) H. Buisson, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 296 (1917); (h) P. Lecomte du Noüy, "Energy and vision," J. Gen. Physiol. 3, 743 (1921); (i) J. Chariton and C. A. Lea, "Some experiments concerning the counting of scintillations produced by alpha particles. Part I," Proc. Roy. Soc. A122, 304 (1929); (j) H. A. Wentworth, "A quantitative study of achromatic and chromatic sensitivity from center to periphery of the visual field," Psych. Monograph 50, 189 pp. (1930); (k) R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, "Lässt sich ein Schroteffekt der Photonen mit dem Auge beobachten?" Zeits. f. Physik 79, 436 (1932).

1903 (1)

H. Piper, "Über Dunkeladaptation," Zeits. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903); S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, "The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye," J. Gen. Physiol., 20, 831 (1937).

1889 (1)

S. P. Langley, "Energy and vision," Phil. Mag. [5] 27,1 (1889).

1881 (1)

S. P. Langley, "The bolometer and radiant energy,"Proc. Am. Acad. 16, 342 (1881).

Chase, A. M.

A. M. Chase and C. Haig, "The absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 411 (1938).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409 (1937).

Fry, T. C.

T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses, (Van Nostrand, New York, 1928).

Goodeve, C. F.

H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409 (1937).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, "Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina," Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935).

Grijns, G.

In addition to Langley, these are: (a) G. Grijns and A. K. Noyons, "Ueber die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges für Licht," Arch. Anat. und Physiol. 25 (1905); (b) H. Zwaardemaker, "Die physiologisch wahrehmbaren Energiewanderungen," Ergeb. Physiol. 4, 423 (1905); (c) J. von Kries and J. A. E. Eyster, "Über die zur Erregung des Sehorgans erforderlichen Energiemenzen," Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 394 (1907); (d) H. E. Ives, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 44, 124 (1916); (e) H. N. Russell, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 45, 60 (1917); (f) P. Reeves, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 167 (1917); (g) H. Buisson, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 296 (1917); (h) P. Lecomte du Noüy, "Energy and vision," J. Gen. Physiol. 3, 743 (1921); (i) J. Chariton and C. A. Lea, "Some experiments concerning the counting of scintillations produced by alpha particles. Part I," Proc. Roy. Soc. A122, 304 (1929); (j) H. A. Wentworth, "A quantitative study of achromatic and chromatic sensitivity from center to periphery of the visual field," Psych. Monograph 50, 189 pp. (1930); (k) R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, "Lässt sich ein Schroteffekt der Photonen mit dem Auge beobachten?" Zeits. f. Physik 79, 436 (1932).

Guilford, J. P.

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1936).

Haig, C.

A. M. Chase and C. Haig, "The absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 411 (1938).

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, "The visibility of monochromatic radiation and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

Koenig, A.

A. Koenig, "Üeber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeuting für das Sehen," Sitzungsb. Akad. Wissensch., Berlin, 577 (1894).

Langley, S. P.

S. P. Langley, "Energy and vision," Phil. Mag. [5] 27,1 (1889).

S. P. Langley, "The bolometer and radiant energy,"Proc. Am. Acad. 16, 342 (1881).

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

Lythgoe, R. J.

H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).

R. J. Lythgoe, "The absorption spectra of visual purple and of indicator yellow," J. Physiol. 89, 331 (1937).

Margaria, R.

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, "Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina," Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935).

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

Noyons, A. K.

In addition to Langley, these are: (a) G. Grijns and A. K. Noyons, "Ueber die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges für Licht," Arch. Anat. und Physiol. 25 (1905); (b) H. Zwaardemaker, "Die physiologisch wahrehmbaren Energiewanderungen," Ergeb. Physiol. 4, 423 (1905); (c) J. von Kries and J. A. E. Eyster, "Über die zur Erregung des Sehorgans erforderlichen Energiemenzen," Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 394 (1907); (d) H. E. Ives, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 44, 124 (1916); (e) H. N. Russell, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 45, 60 (1917); (f) P. Reeves, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 167 (1917); (g) H. Buisson, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 296 (1917); (h) P. Lecomte du Noüy, "Energy and vision," J. Gen. Physiol. 3, 743 (1921); (i) J. Chariton and C. A. Lea, "Some experiments concerning the counting of scintillations produced by alpha particles. Part I," Proc. Roy. Soc. A122, 304 (1929); (j) H. A. Wentworth, "A quantitative study of achromatic and chromatic sensitivity from center to periphery of the visual field," Psych. Monograph 50, 189 pp. (1930); (k) R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, "Lässt sich ein Schroteffekt der Photonen mit dem Auge beobachten?" Zeits. f. Physik 79, 436 (1932).

Østerberg, G.

G. Østerberg, "Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina," Acta Ophth., Copenhagen, Supplement 6, pp. 106 (1935).

Perrin, F. H.

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932).

Piper, H.

H. Piper, "Über Dunkeladaptation," Zeits. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903); S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, "The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye," J. Gen. Physiol., 20, 831 (1937).

Roggenbau, C.

C. Roggenbau and A. Wetthauer, "Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindsauge," Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 79, 456 (1927).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, "On rhodopsin in solution," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 795 (1938).

For a summary of the field see G. Wald, "Area andvisual threshold," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

Wentworth, H. A.

H. A. Wentworth, see footnote 3 (j).

Wetthauer, A.

C. Roggenbau and A. Wetthauer, "Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindsauge," Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 79, 456 (1927).

Williams, R. E.

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, "The visibility of monochromatic radiation and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, "Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina," Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935).

Arch. Anat. und Physiol. (1)

In addition to Langley, these are: (a) G. Grijns and A. K. Noyons, "Ueber die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges für Licht," Arch. Anat. und Physiol. 25 (1905); (b) H. Zwaardemaker, "Die physiologisch wahrehmbaren Energiewanderungen," Ergeb. Physiol. 4, 423 (1905); (c) J. von Kries and J. A. E. Eyster, "Über die zur Erregung des Sehorgans erforderlichen Energiemenzen," Zeits. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 394 (1907); (d) H. E. Ives, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 44, 124 (1916); (e) H. N. Russell, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 45, 60 (1917); (f) P. Reeves, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 167 (1917); (g) H. Buisson, "The minimum radiation visually perceptible," Astrophys. J. 46, 296 (1917); (h) P. Lecomte du Noüy, "Energy and vision," J. Gen. Physiol. 3, 743 (1921); (i) J. Chariton and C. A. Lea, "Some experiments concerning the counting of scintillations produced by alpha particles. Part I," Proc. Roy. Soc. A122, 304 (1929); (j) H. A. Wentworth, "A quantitative study of achromatic and chromatic sensitivity from center to periphery of the visual field," Psych. Monograph 50, 189 pp. (1930); (k) R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, "Lässt sich ein Schroteffekt der Photonen mit dem Auge beobachten?" Zeits. f. Physik 79, 436 (1932).

Arch. Ophthal. (1)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

J. Gen. Physiol. (4)

For a summary of the field see G. Wald, "Area andvisual threshold," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

G. Wald, "On rhodopsin in solution," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 795 (1938).

A. M. Chase and C. Haig, "The absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 411 (1938).

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, "The visibility of monochromatic radiation and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

J. Physiol. (1)

R. J. Lythgoe, "The absorption spectra of visual purple and of indicator yellow," J. Physiol. 89, 331 (1937).

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. (1)

C. Roggenbau and A. Wetthauer, "Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindsauge," Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 79, 456 (1927).

Nature (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409 (1937).

Phil. Mag. (1)

S. P. Langley, "Energy and vision," Phil. Mag. [5] 27,1 (1889).

Proc. Am. Acad. (1)

S. P. Langley, "The bolometer and radiant energy,"Proc. Am. Acad. 16, 342 (1881).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, C. F. Goodeve, and R. J. Lythgoe, "The effect of temperature on the photochemical bleaching of visual purple solutions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A164, 216 (1938).

Zeits. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorgane (1)

H. Piper, "Über Dunkeladaptation," Zeits. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903); S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, "The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye," J. Gen. Physiol., 20, 831 (1937).

Other (6)

G. Østerberg, "Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina," Acta Ophth., Copenhagen, Supplement 6, pp. 106 (1935).

H. A. Wentworth, see footnote 3 (j).

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932).

T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses, (Van Nostrand, New York, 1928).

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1936).

A. Koenig, "Üeber den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeuting für das Sehen," Sitzungsb. Akad. Wissensch., Berlin, 577 (1894).

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