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References

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  1. L. A. Jones, “The contrast of photographic printing paper,” J. Frank. Inst. 202, 177 (1926); J. Frank. Inst. 203, 111 (1927); J. Frank. Inst. 204, 41 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. C. Driffield, “The Hurter and Driffield System: Being a brief account of their photo-chemical investigations and method of speed determination,” Photo-Miniature 5, 337 (1903); F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, “Latitude in exposure and speed of plates,” Photography, July13, 1893.
  3. C. E. K. Mees, “The calculation of exposure,” Wilsons Photographic Magazine 50, 561 (1913).
  4. W. Scheffer, Die Grundlagen der Pihotographie (Union Deutsche Berlagsgesellschaft, Berlin, 1917), p. 69.
  5. E. Goldberg, Der Aufbau des Photographischen Bildes (W. Knapp, Halle, 1922).
  6. M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, “A brightness meter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 132 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. Jones, M. E. Russell, and H. R. Beacham, “A developing machine for sensitometric work,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 28, 73 (1937).
  8. A. M. Koerner and C. Tuttle, “Experimental determination of the photographic density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 241 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. G. Nutting, “On brightness and contrast in optical images,” Astrophys. J. 40, 33 (1914).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Moffitt, “A method for determining the photographic absorption of lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 83 (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932), p. 409; A. C. Hardy, “The distribution of light in optical systems,” J. Frank. Inst. 208, 773 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. N. Goodwin, “The photronic photographic exposure meter,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 20, 95 (1933).
  13. L. A. Jones, “The evaluation of negative film speeds in terms of print quality,” J. Frank. Inst. 227, 297, 497 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. A. Jones and C. N. Nelson, “A study of various sensitometric criteria of negative film speeds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 93 (1940).
    [CrossRef]

1940 (1)

1939 (1)

L. A. Jones, “The evaluation of negative film speeds in terms of print quality,” J. Frank. Inst. 227, 297, 497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1937 (3)

1933 (1)

W. N. Goodwin, “The photronic photographic exposure meter,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 20, 95 (1933).

1926 (1)

L. A. Jones, “The contrast of photographic printing paper,” J. Frank. Inst. 202, 177 (1926); J. Frank. Inst. 203, 111 (1927); J. Frank. Inst. 204, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

1914 (1)

P. G. Nutting, “On brightness and contrast in optical images,” Astrophys. J. 40, 33 (1914).
[CrossRef]

1913 (1)

C. E. K. Mees, “The calculation of exposure,” Wilsons Photographic Magazine 50, 561 (1913).

1903 (1)

V. C. Driffield, “The Hurter and Driffield System: Being a brief account of their photo-chemical investigations and method of speed determination,” Photo-Miniature 5, 337 (1903); F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, “Latitude in exposure and speed of plates,” Photography, July13, 1893.

Beacham, H. R.

L. A. Jones, M. E. Russell, and H. R. Beacham, “A developing machine for sensitometric work,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 28, 73 (1937).

Driffield, V. C.

V. C. Driffield, “The Hurter and Driffield System: Being a brief account of their photo-chemical investigations and method of speed determination,” Photo-Miniature 5, 337 (1903); F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, “Latitude in exposure and speed of plates,” Photography, July13, 1893.

Goldberg, E.

E. Goldberg, Der Aufbau des Photographischen Bildes (W. Knapp, Halle, 1922).

Goodwin, W. N.

W. N. Goodwin, “The photronic photographic exposure meter,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 20, 95 (1933).

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932), p. 409; A. C. Hardy, “The distribution of light in optical systems,” J. Frank. Inst. 208, 773 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones and C. N. Nelson, “A study of various sensitometric criteria of negative film speeds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 93 (1940).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jones, “The evaluation of negative film speeds in terms of print quality,” J. Frank. Inst. 227, 297, 497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jones, M. E. Russell, and H. R. Beacham, “A developing machine for sensitometric work,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 28, 73 (1937).

L. A. Jones, “The contrast of photographic printing paper,” J. Frank. Inst. 202, 177 (1926); J. Frank. Inst. 203, 111 (1927); J. Frank. Inst. 204, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Koerner, A. M.

Luckiesh, M.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, “The calculation of exposure,” Wilsons Photographic Magazine 50, 561 (1913).

Moffitt, G. W.

Nelson, C. N.

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, “On brightness and contrast in optical images,” Astrophys. J. 40, 33 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, F. H.

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932), p. 409; A. C. Hardy, “The distribution of light in optical systems,” J. Frank. Inst. 208, 773 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Russell, M. E.

L. A. Jones, M. E. Russell, and H. R. Beacham, “A developing machine for sensitometric work,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 28, 73 (1937).

Scheffer, W.

W. Scheffer, Die Grundlagen der Pihotographie (Union Deutsche Berlagsgesellschaft, Berlin, 1917), p. 69.

Taylor, A. H.

Tuttle, C.

Astrophys. J. (1)

P. G. Nutting, “On brightness and contrast in optical images,” Astrophys. J. 40, 33 (1914).
[CrossRef]

J. Frank. Inst. (2)

L. A. Jones, “The contrast of photographic printing paper,” J. Frank. Inst. 202, 177 (1926); J. Frank. Inst. 203, 111 (1927); J. Frank. Inst. 204, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jones, “The evaluation of negative film speeds in terms of print quality,” J. Frank. Inst. 227, 297, 497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. (2)

L. A. Jones, M. E. Russell, and H. R. Beacham, “A developing machine for sensitometric work,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 28, 73 (1937).

W. N. Goodwin, “The photronic photographic exposure meter,” J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. 20, 95 (1933).

Photo-Miniature (1)

V. C. Driffield, “The Hurter and Driffield System: Being a brief account of their photo-chemical investigations and method of speed determination,” Photo-Miniature 5, 337 (1903); F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, “Latitude in exposure and speed of plates,” Photography, July13, 1893.

Wilsons Photographic Magazine (1)

C. E. K. Mees, “The calculation of exposure,” Wilsons Photographic Magazine 50, 561 (1913).

Other (3)

W. Scheffer, Die Grundlagen der Pihotographie (Union Deutsche Berlagsgesellschaft, Berlin, 1917), p. 69.

E. Goldberg, Der Aufbau des Photographischen Bildes (W. Knapp, Halle, 1922).

A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1932), p. 409; A. C. Hardy, “The distribution of light in optical systems,” J. Frank. Inst. 208, 773 (1929).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vertical section through the optical axis of the camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured brightness scale values, outdoor scenes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency of occurrence of the various values of brightness scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Curve 1, density-log exposure characteristic of the negative material; curve 2, between points D and A, is the density-log B0 characteristic of a particular negative.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram illustrating the directional viewing and illumination conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical distant, sunlit, front-lighted scene.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical remote, sunlit, front-lighted scene.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical nearby, sunlit, front-lighted, unshaded scene.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical close-up, sunlit, front-lighted, unshaded scene.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical near-by, sunlit, front-lighted, lightly shaded scene.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sensitometric curves illustrating the consequences of applying the exposure-time formula (11).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Brightness data relative to the scenes of group 3. This group consists of near-by, sunlit, front-lighted, unshaded scenes.

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of the average brightness values applying to all groups of scenes.

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of exposure times computed by use of formula (11) with those which have been found by long experience to be satisfactory.

Tables Icon

Table IV Detailed data pertaining to the characteristics of the negatives of scenes included in group 3.

Tables Icon

Table V Summarized average values pertaining to the negatives of all groups.

Tables Icon

Table VI Two possible series of calculator numbers which are inversely proportional to the speed numbers of negative materials. Calculator numbers rounded off for convenient practical use.

Tables Icon

Table VII Three possible series of calculator numbers which are directly proportional to the speed numbers of negative materials. Calculator numbers rounded off for convenient practical use.

Equations (41)

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I S i = I i max. / I i min.
F F ( flare factor ) = B S 0 / I S i .
Δ B = ( I i min. · B 0 max. ) - ( I i max. · B 0 min. ) I i max. - I i min. .
B 0 max. + Δ B = e f B 0 max. , B 0 min. + Δ B = e f B 0 min.
log B 0 max. + Δ B B 0 max. .
log B 0 min. + Δ B B 0 min. .
log F F = log B 0 min. + Δ B B 0 min. - log B 0 max. + Δ B B 0 max. .
ϕ x = D S n log B S 0 - log F F = D S n log I S i , ϕ n = D S n / log B S 0 .
G D = G B / F F .
I i 0 = B 0 · F 2 4 v 2 f 2 · cos 4 θ · H · T g ,
I i 0 = B 0 · T g / 4 f 2 .
cos 4 15 ° = 0.87.
F 2 v 2 = ( u - F u ) 2 = 0.95.
I i 0 = B 0 · 0.463 / 4 f 2 .
I i 0 ( m.c. ) = B 0 ( ft-L ) · 0.463 · 10.76 / 4 f 2 ,
I i 0 = B 0 · 4.98 / 4 f 2 ,
I i 0 ( m.c. ) = 5 B 0 ( ft-L ) / 4 f 2 .
E = I · t ,
S = 1 / E 0.3 G ¯ ,
t ( sec. ) = 4 f 2 / ( 5 B 0 · S ) .
t = 4 f 2 · S F / 5 B 0 min. · S · F F .
F F = 4.0 , S F = 2.5 ,
t = f 2 / 2 B 0 min. · S .
t = 1 / 2 · B 0 min.
t = 1 B 0 min. · f 2 2 S ,
t = 1 B 0 min. · [ 1 S · 4 f 2 · S F ( u - F u ) 2 · cos 4 θ · H · T g · F F · 10.76 ] .
N 1 = f 2 2 S = 1 S · 4 f 2 · S F ( u - F u ) 2 · cos 4 θ · H · T g · F F · 10.76 .
N 1 = 32 / S .
N 1 = f 2 / 2.8 S .
N 2 = 2048 / S .
N 3 = S · ( u - F u ) 2 · cos 4 θ · H · T g · F F · 10.76 4 f 2 · S F .
N 3 = S / 32.
t = 1 B 0 min. · 1 N 3 .
N 4 = S / 64.
t = 1 / 31.25 ,
t = 1 / 32.
N 5 = S / 5.
M z = b / a .
t = ( 1 R z / M z ) ( 1 N 3 ) .
M z = B 0 ( M ) B 0 min. = 200 14.5 = 14.
t = 1 18 · 1 5 = 1 90 .